Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Volume 11, Issue 2

Volume 11, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2021, Page 1-157


Potential Effects Of Natural Antioxidants In The Treatment Of Some Viral Diseases: Review

Nareman Adeem Shnaa Aljazy; Alaa R. Abdulstar

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.130914.1007

Viruses have a high ability to resist drugs and adapt to all conditions. This has encouraged the scientific community to develop new therapeutic agents by using antioxidant compounds that are naturally present in foods and medicinal plants. Cellular harm caused by free radicals (Reactive Oxygen Spescies ROS) leads to many From the diseases such as diabetes, virus inflammation, impregnability diseases, and digestive diseases. ROS are created during Metabolism of complex chemical compounds. Some plants are characterized  by their antioxidant and antiviral activity which increases their ability to fight viruses, therefore plants with antioxidant capacity protect cells by stopping the oxidation chain reaction, and also can contribute significantly to offsetting oxidative stress caused by viral disease. Essential oils extracted from plants may serve as potential alternative sources for treating diseases caused by certain viruses. This study aims to show the potential effect of natural antioxidants found in some foods, herbs and their essential oils in treating some viral diseases, as well as how they work in boosting immunity and inhibition of free radicals

Adding Some Of Organic Acids Into Feed Common Carp Fish Cyprinus Carpio L. And Affecting Of Feeding On Coefficient Of Digestion And Rates Of Growth

Nuha Hameed Albassam; Marwa Muzahim Al-Doori; Intisar Abduljabbar Shamkhi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 12-16
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.130856.1006

The study has been done in the Fish Laboratory of the Dep. of Animal Production / Faculty of Agriculture / Tikrit University to exhibit the effect of using prepared fish residue powder enrichment by lactic and formic 1%,2% on coefficient of digestion and rates of growth Cyprinus carpio L.This has been given for eighty fish, while the fish has been put in sixteen glass pools each one has five fish. Also, the initial weight had been a 270±1.85g/fish. In general, fish had been fed for two times a day. In this feed which has been prepared from chemical elements for feeding common carpio The T2 and T3 groups had recorded the highest digested coefficient of protein which reached about 83.36±0.58 and 80.33±0.47 respectively, while the digested coefficient of carbohydrate had recorded around 78.59±0.95 and 76.86±0.53 respectively. The indigested coefficient of ash was written down by about 89.14±1.28 and 87.76±0.39 respectively, so these results of T2, T3 are more significant effect than others. Moreover, all experimental groups in the digested fat coefficient were a significant higher compared of the T1 control treatment 79.46±0.99 .The T3 and T5 had recorded the highest rate of weight by around 109.56g and 105.47g respectively, while the T3 group appeared the highest rates of daily growth of 2.17 g/day, relative growth 42.03, and qualitative growth of 0.29 g/day at P≤0.05 level compared of others. The current study shows that the abilities of adding lactic and formic acid by about 1%, 2% respectively into feeding fish has had a critical positive effect on coefficient of digestion and without any side effects by using as a source of animal protein into feed common carp fish.

Effect Of Spraying With Sorbitol And Boron On Growth Characteristics And Oil Percentage In Rapeseed Brassica napus L.

Tahseen Ali Ibrahim AL-Abtan; Wisam Malik Dawood; Ayad Assi Obaid

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131249.1008

The experiment was carried out in a private agricultural field in Baladrooz district, Diyala Governorate, Iraq in the autumn season 2019-2020 to study the effect of spraying with sorbitol and boron on the vegetative growth characteristics and oil percentage of rapeseed. Spraying of boron 50 and 100 mg  gave the highest mean in root length 28.59 and 27.83 cm, number of main roots 32.19 and 32.61, number of pods 739.8 and 746.8,  and oil percentage  45.08 and 47.43 % compared to boron 0 mg (untreated plants) which reached 26.36 cm, 28.92, 616.5 and  43.24% respectively, while spraying of sorbitol 30 g recorded the highest mean in leaf area 298.14 cm, fresh weight of leaves 13.44 g, dry weight of leaves 1.244 g, root length 29.43 cm, main roots number 34.21, number of pods 746.9 and  oil percentage  47.78 %  as compared with sorbitol 0 g (untreated plants) which reached  248.50 cm, 10.81 g, 0.962 g, 25.54 cm, 25.49, 602.5 and 41.36% respectively. The interaction of spraying between sorbitol and boron on rapeseed plants resulted in a significant increase in all studied traits, where treatment of boron 100 mg with sorbitol 30 g led to a significant increase in leaf area, fresh weight of leaves, dry weight of leaves and root length, which reached  338.33 cm, 14.99 g, 1.323 g and 30.16 cm respectively, whereas the treatment of boron 100 mg with sorbitol 20 g recorded the highest increase in the number of roots, number of pods and percentage of oil, as it gave 36.50 , 869.2 and 49.67% respectively.

Effect Rapeseed Oil And Tryptophan In The Growth Characteristics Of Catharanthus roseus L.

Tahseen Ali Ibrahim AL-Abtan; Wisam Malik Dawood; Ayad Assi Obaid

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131250.1009

A pots experiment was conducted in Baladrooz district, Diyala Governorate, Iraq in autumn season 2020 to study the effect of spraying with rapeseed oil and tryptophan  on vegetative growth characteristics of Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.A factorial experiment was applied with two factors, spraying of the rapeseed oil and tryptophan in three levels (0, 5 and 10 ml. l-1) and (0, 100 and 200 mg. l-1) respectively. The results show that each of rapeseed oil or tryptophan in improved all studied characteristics, when they were sprayed separately, also the interaction between them was effective, Tryptophan 100 mg. l-1 and rapeseed oil 10 ml. l-1 gave the highest increase in number of vegetative branches 11.12 and the number of leaves 84.68, whereas the tryptophan 100 mg. l-1 and rapeseed oil 5 ml. l-1gave the highest value of leaf area 22.36 cm2, fresh weight of the shoot 28.26 g, dry weight of the shoot 7.23 g and dry weight of the root 2.34 g,the tryptophan 200 mg. l-1 and rapeseed oil 5 ml. l-1gave the highest value of plant height 40.00 cm.

Extracellular Enzymes of Endophytic Fungi Hosted Salt Marsh Plants in the South Eastern, Algeria

Wassima Lakhdari; Randa Mlik; Hamida Hammi; Ibtissem Benyahia; Nour Elhouda Mekhadmi; Berrekbia Mohammed; Sofiane Gheriani; Abderrahmene Dehliz

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 26-31
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131865.1010

Endophyte microorganisms have great biotechnological interest, with features applicable to different areas and are potentially useful in agriculture. In the current study, the most dominant and representative endophytic fungal species of seven halophytic plants prevalent in the southeastern Algeria, Touggourt, were screened for their ability to produce four extracellular enzymes namely: cellulase, amylase, laccase, and lipase. Zygophyllum album came first by hosting diverse endophytic species among all the tested plants with eight species followed by Tamarix boveana and Limoniastrum guyonianum (46.66%) as well as Phragmites communis with 40% and Haloxylon articulatum and Aeluropus littoralis with 33.33%. Unlike J. effusus, it was the less diverse plant where only three species (20%) were identified. In term of enzymatic activities of the selected fungi, the two species of Chaetomium presented cellulase, amylase and lipase activity. Unlike, Trichoderma harzianum involved in lipase, Ulocladium sp. in cellulase, Bipolaris sp. and Botryostimphylium sp. in Amylase. Unlike, the two species of Chaetomium involved in cellulase, amylase and lipase. On the other hand, no enzyme activity was recorded in the colonies of Fusarium sp.

Assessment of Erosive Activity By Modeling Approach in Northern Algeria

Chellali Rachid; LADJAL Rabah

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 32-36
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131886.1011

The erosive activity in the Cheliff watershed (Algeria) draws its magnitude from the climatic, geological and geomorphometric conditions that characterize this region. Indeed, the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation caracterising the semi-arid climate, coupled at a very pronounced relief with vulnerable lithologic composition amplified the phenemon.
The extended no taring of the main hydrometric station, located at the exutory of Nahr Ouassel sub-watershed, makes inevitable the use of quantification by modeling. Moreover, the endoreism of the flows in the sub-basin prevents any significant correlation between rainfall and flows, which justifies the extrapolation of an adequate model.
The regional model adopted in this study was established from the data of several hydrometric stations and dams through northern Algeria. The Bougara dam sub-basin was used for its validation.
The main objective of this work is to estimate the specific degradation of Nahr Ouassel sub-watershed using an adequate model.

Isolation and diagnosis of Bacillus sp from the rhizosphere of halophytic wild plants and evaluation of the efficiency of isolates in dissolving Tri-Calcium Phosphate

Saad Hussein; Najim A. Jumah Al-Zubaidy; Faris Mohammad Suhail

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131945.1012

Bacillus sp was isolated and diagnosed from the rhizosphere of halophytic wild plants (Schanginia aeguptiace plant, Atriplex halimus plant, and the comparison soil far from the effect of the roots) and during three stages of plants growth (germination stage, vegetative growth stage, stage post flowering), and for three locations that included (Diyala University, Muqdadiya , Baladrooz) during the season of 2020. The diagnosis included studying the phenotypic, microscopic and biochemical features of these isolates and testing their efficiency in dissolving Tri-calcium phosphate Ca3(po4)2 as a source of phosphate after growing them in liquid and solid Pikovskayas media and estimating its solubility factor, and its efficiency in changing the degree of the medium reaction. The results of isolation and diagnosis showed the spread of Bacillus sp in saline environments, as 7 isolates out of 27 isolates that isolated during the growth stages of different halophytic wild plants were belonged to Bacillus subtilis, viz (B1, B5, B6, B7, B11, B15, B18, B19, B22, B23, B26), while the rest of the isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, whereas the isolates B1 and B2 were recorded the highest solubility factor reached (1.40 and 1.50) respectively, the isolate B26 was able to reduce the pH value of the inoculated medium to 4.81.

Effect Of Soil And Water Salinity On The Quality Of Deglet Noor Dates in Biskra Region, Algeria

Messaouda HADDOU; Souad BABAHANI; Ali MASMOUDI

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 44-48
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.131952.1013

Abstract. The Biskra region in Algeria is known for the production of very good quality Deglet Nour dates. This quality is the result of the interaction of several ecological and agronomic factors. Our work aims to study the impact of hydro-edaphic parameters on the quality of Deglet Noor dates, produced in the region of Biskra. The study is carried out in three stations: Tolga, Sidi Okba and Ouled Djelel. Three farms are chosen in each station. The methodological approach is based on Soil, water, biometric and biochemical analyzes on sampled dates. The results shows that the water irrigation have a high salinity in Sidi Okba station. The statistical analyzes (ACP) shows that, the high salinity of irrigation water is the main cause of soil salinization. This salinization reduces the biometric characteristics of dates (length, width and weight), and increases their total sugar content.

Land Use Land Cover Mapping with Change Detection: A Spatio-temporal Analysis of Ambo Woreda, Ethiopia from 2000 to 2020

RIYAZ KHAN N H

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132280.1014

The main aim of this present study is to identify and detect the land use, land cover changes occurred in the Ambo Woreda of West Shewa Zone in Ethiopia and to integrate the Remote Sensing and GIS data for analyzing and evaluating the changes in land-use of study area. Based on remotely sensed data, the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps and field records have been considered for investigation. Landsat7 ETM+ image of 2000 and Sentinel 2A image of 2020 are the two remotely sensed images of study area used in this study. The supervised classification based on maximum likelihood classifier in ArcGIS 10.3 has been used to identify the five major categories of LULC. The observation on the period of twenty years reveals that the agricultural land and built-up areas have stretched rapidly to the adjacent fallow lands. Also, there is significant loss in Hilly Vegetation due to settlements and industrial expansion in the fastest growing region of the Oromia Zone.

Volatile compounds of some blueberries cultivars infested with fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

Hasan Hadi Al-khshemawee

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132286.1015

Abstract: It is important to understand the fruit insect interaction mechanism to developing strategies to control the pests. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) infested some blueberries Vaccinium spp. cultivars, and their volatile compounds composition of infested fruit of those cultivars has been studied. Head space solid-phase microextraction extraction- gas chromatography (SPME-GC/MS) has been used to detect volatiles on these cultivars. First Blush 4514 and Brigitta 1403 Australian cultivars used in this experiment. A total of 119 compounds find form these cultivars. There are a major different volatiles and their structure from infested fruits. HS-SPME released complex volatiles including (butanoic acid-3 methyl-, methy ester, methyl isovalerate, Butanoic acid-3 methyl-, isobutyl acetate, ethanone,2,2-dihydroxy-phenyl ) from First blush and Styrene, and 6-Methyl 1-2,3-dihydro-1,4-oxathine, methyl isovalerate, butanoic acid-3 methyl-, methy ester, ethyl isobutenoate from Brigitta cultivar.

Avain Coccidial Review

Batool Kadhim Meteab; Mahasen Abedalrazzaq; Asseel Abdulridha Saeed

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170104

Dep. Pathology and Poultry Diseases /coll. Vet.Med./ AL-Qadissiyah University Summary Coccdiosis consider sever disorder and necessary from an financial factor of view in poultry   industry which has been controlled efficaciously for decades using more often than not anticoccidial products so the understood this disorder may additionally be help to control it. The economic impact of coccidiosis is probably underestimated, and increasing anticoccidial treatments might be useful to the broiler sector. Furthermore, a connection between subclinical coccidiosis and bacterial enteritis renders selecting the perfect tools and technique for poultry producers very difficult. Implementing sound shuttle and rotation programs is now a part of the solution for not just controlling clinical, but also subclinical coccidiosis.

Effect of Different Proportions of Probiotics on Immunological Blood Parameters of Babcock Laying Hens Strain

Moustafa Abed-Almajeed; mahdi salih; Omar Mardenli; Faez Saleh Mohammad; Ammar subhy Shaker; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani; Asmaa Mohammed D. K

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170204

The research was conducted at the Research Center of Agriculture Faculty of the University of Aleppo. 240 chickens of Babcock B300 strain were used and distributed randomly from day one into four independent groups. Each group included 60 birds distributed into three replicates (20 birds). The control group (A group) was fed a balanced standard feed mixture (1-18 weeks) without additives, while lactic acid bacillus was added to treatments groups according to three levels (50 mg/kg feed; B group, 100 mg/kg feed; C group and 150 mg/kg feed; D group). Haematological analyzes were performed over two- time intervals (1-21 weeks and 22-32 weeks). In the first time interval, results showed that a rise in blood albumin (P<0.001) was also observed in C and D groups compared to the A group. The rates of blood globulin increased (P<0.02) in the D group compared with the rest of the groups. No significant differences were noticed across the various groups for the total number of white blood cells and lymphocytes rates. In the second time interval (productive stage), significant differences (P<0.01) were noticed across the various groups in the percentages of the total protein (the highest value was 4.75 g/dl; B group) and serum albumin (the highest value was 3.26 g/dl; D group). It is concluded from the current study that the addition of probiotics to the mixtures of laying hens had a significant improvement in the immune parameters in the blood.

Efficacy of Using Lactic Acid Bacillus on Productive Parameters of Babcock B300 Laying Hens Strain

mahdi salih; Moustafa Abed-Almajeed; Omar Mardenli; Faez Saleh Mohammad; Ammar subhy Shaker; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani; Asmaa Mohammed D. K

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 72-77
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170226

This research was carried out in the Research Center of the Faculty of Agriculture in Al-Muslimiya, 240 hybrid Babcock B300 female laying hens were randomly distributed since the first day of the experiment into four independent groups. Each group included 60 birds according to three replicates (20 birds in each replicate). Lactic acid bacillus was added to the feed mixture according to three levels (50 mg/kg; B group, 100 mg /kg; C group and 150 mg/kg; D group), while the first group was considered as a control group (A group) and was without additions. During the production period, the results showed that the addition of lactic acid bacillus led to significant differences (p<0.03) in the egg production and shell thickness compared with the control group. The additions did not affect the egg weight and feed consumption rate as well as the feed conversion ratio. The birds of the third group (C group) showed clear superiority in various productive traits compared to others in the other groups throughout the productive period followed by the birds of group D and then group B. The current study concluded that adding 100 mg /kg lactic acid bacillus to the feed mixtures for laying hens will contribute to raising the productive efficiency of laying hens and improving egg specifications.

Quantity, Quality and Cost of Household Waste in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate

Ammar Subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170227

In the current stage is to calculate the daily generated quantities of solid household waste, as well as to indicate the annual amounts spent on the stages of collection, transportation and landfilling of this waste, as well as to identify the practical reality of the processes and stages of solid household waste management followed by the municipal institutions of the governorate to indicate the possibility of establishing an investment project Dedicated to recycling plastic, paper and glass materials and benefiting from organic materials as fertilizers for the soil or for energy production, with the aim of activating sustainable development in the governorate.

Benefits and Challenges of Waste Recycling, a Field Study in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate

Ammar Subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 85-108
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170228

Previous studies have resulted in many different countries and geographical regions in weather, terrain and activity The industrial sector to verify the extent to which the countries of the year benefit from recycling waste (1), The most important benefit is to reduce the volume and quantity The accumulated waste in the landfills that narrowed it down, which poses a threat to health and the environment, in addition to harming human senses and making use of basic materials suitable for industry, was doomed to be lost without benefit, with some remaining, such as glass and aluminum For long periods without decomposing or turning into part of the soil . And avoid the disposal of some of them, such as car oils And old tires in ways that lead to environmental pollution . What encourages countries to recycle some wastes such as glass, aluminum(2), wood and tires is that they are economically viable operations to the extent that many private companies compete in recycling them with the aim of profit due to the cost, energy and manufacturing requirements they provide without the need for huge capital or government support. By examining the possibility of applying waste recycling in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce the amount and volume of waste in it, it was not hidden from the economic feasibility of recycling wood waste, aluminum, glass, car oils and old tires even on a small scale, and that recycling operations will inevitably lead to a good economic recovery without the need for the state to bear a part of costs . As for household waste from aluminum cans and glass bottles(3), it needs recycling centers to collect, sort and prepare materials extracted from waste for recycling factories, and it also requires an expansion in the manufacturing process . This is also economically feasible, but it needs support from the state, local government, social institutions, and acceptance from the people. .In the case of matter, since it has a law that preserves it, it is transformed from materials that people benefit from and benefit from, even if he consumes them, they turn into waste or other chemical forms that are useless . However, if a person realizes the composition of waste, he will be able to recover the useful from it and use it again . Thus, this study provides results for the extent to which the city benefits from recycling industrial waste . The study focuses on recycled waste; Like:
-Wood : wood and sawdust waste from carpentry shops and furniture factories •
-Aluminum : aluminum waste from door and window workshops •
-Oils : used car oils •
-Tires : old tires •
-Glass : leftover glass from glass shops, etc(4) •
The research answers some questions; Including : What are the quantities of this industrial waste in the city of Diwaniyah? What is the method that is currently being disposed of? Is there really a benefit from recycling waste? • Is the process of recycling economically viable(3); Or does the state bear part of its costs? Can the recycling process be applied in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce?  the amount and volume of waste there, or not The research begins with a presentation of the problem of the accumulated waste from industrial activity and then turns to a presentation of ways to dispose of waste that accumulates very quickly in contemporary society . The research also presents details of a specific waste recycling process, namely wood, aluminum, and car waste from oils, tires, and glass . After that, the research deals with discussing the extent of benefiting from waste recycling at the present time, and the economic feasibility of recycling, including the entities funding the recycling process . The report concludes by addressing the issue of the possibility of applying the recycling process in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce the amount and volume of waste(5).

Magnetic Water Treatment in Agriculture Sciences

Ammar Subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 109-113
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170229

This study investigates the difference in the effect of magnetized water on accelerating the transport of nutrients in sandy soils and on their absorption by citrus fruits [1]. The response of the fruits to irrigation with magnetized water was estimated for three successive seasons. The results showed the effect of magnetized water on the mobility of nutrients in the root zone, which differed significantly from the element to another according to the element's ability to be magnetized . The increase in the extraction of elements from the soil as a result of magnetization was the highest possible for iron, iron extraction reached 9 times the amount of extraction in the normal case from one piece of land . Zinc increased 5 times [2], phosphorous increased 3 times and the increase in manganese was only 80%.In any case, the leaves content of manganese showed the maximum increase of this element and zinc came after it in the second place, while the content of iron in the leaves was the lowest . The leaf content of phosphorous was tripled, and for potassium the increase was significant, while for nitrogen it was not affected by magnetized water . The amount of fruits reached its maximum when the water moved to a distance of 600 meters after the magnetization device on the other hand, the magnetization device stopped causing significant changes on the water that travels for a distance of more than 700 meters [3].

Nutritional and Industrial Value of Turkey Meat "Meleagris Gallopavo": Review

Alla M Al &amp;ndash;Baidhani; Haider k. Al- Qutaifi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 114-125
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132315.1016

The relationship between meat consumption and health is complex and should be analyzed in detail, paying particular attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of different types of meat, and in several studies on poultry meat, including turkey, which is characterized by its highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen), and of good nutritional quality as well as unsaturated fats (found mainly in the skin and easily removed) and vitamins of group B (mainly thiamine, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), Minerals (such as iron, zinc, and copper) make its meat a valuable food. Through this study, it was found that there is a relationship between the consumption of turkey meat within a balanced diet and good health. Consuming it as part of a diet rich in vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. White meat (and poultry in particular) is considered moderately protective or neutral against cancer risk. The importance of poultry meat to humans has also been recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which considers this widely available and relatively inexpensive food to be particularly beneficial in developing countries, as it can help fill in the deficiency of essential nutrients. Consumption of Turkey also contributes to the overall quality of the diet at specific ages and conditions (before conception, during pregnancy until the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and into old age) and is suitable for those with an increased need for calories and protein compared to the general population. And it was found that turkey meat contains some vital amines, which are an indicator of quality, as well as having antioxidant and antibacterial activity, and it has been proven that eating this type of meat reduces the incidence of COVID-19 disease.

Analytical Study of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Pollen (Typha domingensis pers.) Extracted from the Papyrus Plant and its Use in Cake Enrichment

Nareman Adeem Shnaa Aljazy; Alaa R. Abdulstar; Jinan Mohammed Fayyad Alrakabi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 126-136
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132392.1017

The pollen (typha domingensis pers.) of the papyrus plant is one of the foods rich in minerals and active chemical compounds, known for its important properties. This study came to determine those chemical compounds and the possibility of including pollen in the development of suitable cake formulations. The active compounds in the three pollen extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and hexane) were determined by gas chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer (GCMS), The total content of flavonoids and the antioxidant activity by free radicals DPPH was estimated by hydrogen donation for all chemical extracts, The mineral elements were estimated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as well as studying the sensory properties of pollen cake. The results showed that pollen contains many active compounds such as gamma.sitosterol, catechol, propionic acid, phenols and palmitoleic acid. The highest total flavonoids content was at the concentration of 75 mg/ml, as it ranged between 99 mg/ml for the ethanolic extract and 98 mg/ml for the aqueous and hexane extract. The pollen extracts showed that they had a good ability to inhibit free radical DPPH by donating hydrogen , the results showed that there were no significant differences in the percentage of inhibition of the extracts , which amounted to 83% ,79% and 76% for hexane ,ethanol and aqueous extracts at a concentration of 75mg/ml .The results showed that the pollen contained a good content of calcium, potassium, magnesium and zinc, which amounted to (19.794, 23.620, 4.578 and 0.08) g/L, respectively. Sensory evaluation also showed excellent potential of pollen when used as a functional ingredient in cake making

Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Zahdi Date Seed and Their Effect on Beef Patties

Nareman Adeem Shnaa Aljazy; Aum El-Basher H.J. Al-Mossawi; Ali Khudair Jaber Al Rikabi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 137-149
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.132415.1019

The study included preparation of aqueous (As) and alcoholic (ethanolic Es,methanolic Ms) and oil extracts (Os) of Zahdi date seeds (Zs)(Phoenix dactylifera) . Chemical content of date seed was studied and the total content of phenols and flavonoids were estimated for prepared extract. Bioactive compounds of this extract was identification by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer GCl MS. Antioxidant activity , reducing power, chelating of iron ions of extract was studied , then used the extract which gave highest antioxidant activity in beef patties with two concentrations 0.05% and 0.1% to test their efficiency in oxidative inhibition and prolonging the reservoir age of stored beef patties in refrigerated for 10 – days and following chemical indicators in Peroxide value(PV) , Thiobarbituric acid(TBA) in treated beef patties . Moisture , protein ,oil, ash and carbohydrate contents of Zs 9.36%, 4.87% , 8.56% , 1.34%, 75.87% respectively . All extracts containing many bioactive compounds that identification of GC-MS and differented in their percentage according to the type of extract. All extracts share with some bioactive compound as 1-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate, gamma.sitosterol ,Octadecanoic 5-Methyl-2-ethylamino-2-thiazoline, acid , Hexadecanoic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-(hydrixymethyl)ethylester . Alcoholic extracts (Es and Ms) exhibited the highest content of phenolic compound compared with As was 67.32mglml for Es , Ms was 65.32mglml While the total content of flavonoids for As 33.32mglml and Es 52.16 mglml , 46.16mglml for Ms , As and alcoholic extracts of Zs exhibited antioxidant activity was 88.70% for Es and 87.02% for Os , 85.22% for Ms , but As was the lowest 43.01% . The prepared extracts showed the higher reducing power was 2.63 and Chelating of iron ions 60.93 % and for Es ,There was a significant decrease (P<0.05)in peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid in beef patties treated with ethanolic extracts compared with control.

Effect of Hatching Eggs Storage and Maternal Age on Internal Egg Characteristics

mahdi salih; Ammar subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 150-157
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170249

The current review showed that storing eggs for a period of more than 7 days affects the quality, the  internal characteristics of the eggs and the extent of survival of the embryo during the periods of egg storage and subsequent incubation. Besides, the dam age also has an effect that interferes with the length of the storage period. Increasing the length of storage period causes a negative decrease in the egg characteristics of old breeders (breeders<53 weeks of age) and young ones. The decrease is more pronounced in some of the characteristics of the eggs of small flocks compared to the older ones, such as the increase in the pH of albumin, as well as the morphological changes of the embryo that increase with the increase in the length of the storage period, but this increase is more pronounced in the younger flocks than in the larger ones. Storing the ggs for a short period (<7 days) does not reduce the hatching rate of the eggs of young breeders, this may be due to the lack of fluidity of the albumin and the availability of oxygen to the embryo. Increasing the length of storage period affects negativelythe hatched chicks charactoristics ( young and old broodstock). The interaction between length of egg storage and the age of the breeders on the characteristics of hatched chicks is not sufficiently clear. It can be concluded from this study that storing eggs for a short period improves the hatchability rate of the of young mothers, not of old ones.The negative effect of prolonged egg storage has less effect on the eggs of young breeders than eggs of older ones. The conditions of egg storage have an important effect on the characteristics of hatching and hatched chicks when storing eggs for a long time.