Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Issue 2,

Issue 2


The Effect of Boron, Humic Acid and Interference on Water Productivity and Yield of Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea)

Alwand Tahir R. Dizayee

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 193-197
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167057

An experiment has been carried out at field in Gardmalla/Qushtapa with reading GPS (longitude 440035E, Latitude 360023N) ,414 meter above sea level, 15.5 Km far Southern of Erbil city during the Winter season of 2017 to test the effect of application humic acid in soil and spraying boron on the growth and productivity of water on cauliflower. Factorial experiment 3 (humic acid) (0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 using) × 4 (boron foliar) ( 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kg B ha-1 ) using solid snow cultivars in RCBD with three replicates.
Planting solid snow cultivars was done on 11/7/2017 (seeding date), 10 /8 /2017 (transfer to field) and 22/12/ 2017 picking or harvesting date. Irrigation water was applied at 35% depletion to the depth of total plant root and calculate the depth of water applied up to field capacity. Irrigation system is surface flow irrigation through line pipe provided with meter gages for measuring water applied.
The results show that the application of boron and humic acid increase significantly all growth and yield parameters of cauliflower improved the highest values of leaf length (cm), leaf width (cm) and chlorophyll content (mg/cm2), recorded 47.67 cm, 28.45 cm and 40.66 mg/cm2; 75.39 cm, 37.55 cm and 43.11 mg/cm2 and 80.0 cm, 40.29 cm and 47.33 mg/cm2 in treatment 2 kg ha-1 of boron foliar and 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 of humic acid addition, respectively. The values of curd weight (kg), curd diameter (cm) and total yield (Mg/ha) values were 0.97 kg, 19.45 cm and 25.38 Mg/ha; 1.33 kg, 22.33 cm and 32.66 Mg/ha and 1.40 kg, 23.78 cm and 36.53 Mg/ha in treatment 2 kg ha-1 of boron foliar and 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 of humic acid application, respectively. Values of water productivity (Kg/m3) ranged between 6.25 to 12.18 Kg fresh (green) curd m-3 water applied.

The role of single inoculation and dubie and triple bacterial interaction Azospirullum brasilanse and VAM Glomuse Mossea and phosphate rock in availability NPK In the Rhizosphere Cucumber ( cucmuise stivease L. )

Hatem N. Arabi; Jawad A. Kamal

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 198-205
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167058

Use biofirtilizer forming for quantity Bacterial Azospirullum braslieanse and VAM Glomus mossea and four levels of rock phosphate ( 0 , 80, 140 , 200 Kg . ha -1) to study the single effect and double and triple interaction in the availability NPK In the Rhizosphere ( cucmuise stivease L. ) . Although the yield contains few nutrients but is considered one of the most important crops in Iraq ( 36). It is fast growing and needs high fertilization of NPK ( 38).
It gave a solo biofertilizer bacterial and fungal and the level of rock phosphate 140 Kg ha -1 on characters NPK Measured in soil , achieving the highest significant increase in the values of treatments 50.43 , 49.52 , 50.70 mg N .kg 1 and 16.02 , 15.51 , 16.26 mg P .kg 1 and 191.54 , 192.26 , 192.32 mg K .kg -1 On the sequence compared with Control. The results of the double interaction in bacterial with fungal , bacterial interaction with phosphate rock, and fungi interaction with phosphate rock at 140 Kg -1 .ha Increase in characters NPK Measured in soil , , As it achieved the highest significant increase in treatments values 51.04 , 52.5 , 51.41 mg N .kg - 1 16.28 , 16.47 , 16.81 mg P .kg - 1 and 192.59 , 192.24 , 193.29 mg K .kg -1 On the sequence in relation to its control.
The results of the triple interaction Bacterial, fungal, and phosphate rock was given at the level of phosphate rock 140 Kg. Ha -1 increase in characters NPK Measured in soil , if triple interaction achieves the highest significant increase in the values of treatments 52 . 84 mg N .kg - 1 and 16.92 mg P .kg m - 1 and 193.29 mg K .kg m - 1 On the sequence in relation to its control.
The results showed that the triple interaction ( A. braslieanse + Glomeas mossea + Phosphate rock ) at level 140 Kg . Ha -1 Phosphate rock gave the highest significant increase in the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil of the plastic house . As the interaction between these microorganisms was positive and the impact of living one on the other was a catalyst in the increase of availability NPK .

Effect of Substitution of Urea With Different Type and Levels of Ruminant Manure on Nutritive Value of Rice Straw Silage

Ali Ameen Saeed; Saja Intisar Abid

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 206-214
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167059

This study was conducted in Nutrition Lab. to investigate the effect of the type and level of substitution of urea with ruminant manure, M (sheep, cow and buffalo) on basis of nitrogen (N) content on the nutritive value of rice straw silage (RSS). Accordingly silages were nominated as, S-RSS, C-RSS and B-RSS. Urea (U) was substituted with dried manure at 6 combinations, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of U:M. Silage samples were prepared by treating chopped straw with pre-treated solution contained 10% low quality debis and 2% urea. Results showed that lower (P˂0.01) DM loss (11.4%) was observed in S-RSS, and with addition of urea only (3.6%).
Samples of S-RSS and C-RSS recorded higher (P˂0.01) Fleig points (Fp) as compared with those prepared by the addition of B-RSS, 60.42, 55.58 and 49.59 respectively. Reduction (P˂0.01) in this parameter was noticed in samples prepared with a combination of 100:0. Aerobic stability (AS) was a reduced (P˂0.01) in samples prepared by addition of S-RSS by 15 and 13 hours in comparison with samples of C-RSS and B-RSS respectively. Samples prepared with combination of 100:0 were prior (P˂0.01) as compared with other samples.
Results also showed an increase (P˂0.01) in in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVOMD) in samples of S-RSS in comparison with samples prepared by addition of C-RSS and B-RSS, 49.99, 44.59 and 42.77% respectively. Samples prepared with combination of 100:0 recorded lower (P˂0.05) in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) as compared with combinations of 70:30 and 60:40 of U: M, 40.52, 45.36 and 45.94% respectively.

Effect of Biofertilizer with Trichoderma Harzianu Fungus and Zink Foliar Spraying on Cucumber Plant (Cucumis Sativus L.) and Growth Characters

Ali M.A. AL- Eidani; Jawad A.A.K. AL- Shibani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 215-224
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167060

A Filed experiment was conducted in winter agricultural season 2017/2018 in one of unheated greenhouse in Al-Qadisiyah university / agriculturae college About effect each of Trichoderma harzianum fungus and Zink foliar spraying on Cucumber plant Cucumis sativus L. And interaction between them on cucumber plant type (Sayff F1). The experiment was conducted according to randomize block completely design ( R.B.C.D) and by testing the effect of second factors the first factor including biofertilizer treatment Trichoderma harzianum with two Levels ( pollination and without pollination), the second factor was Zink foliar spraying with three levels (0,10,20 mg L-1 Zn)K Experiment treatments were six treatments as (T1 distilling water spraying), (T2 T.harzianum),(T3 Zink foliar spraying with concentrate (10 )mg L-1 Zn, (T4 T.harzianum pollination + Zink foliar spraying with concentrate 10 mg L-1) ,( T5 Zink foliar spraying with concentrate 20 mg L-1 , (T6 T.harzianum pollination + Zink foliar spraying with concentrate 20 mg L-1) with three Replecats Every experimental unit including 10 plants, and means comparing at least significant differences (L.S.D) in probability level (0.05(.The results can be summarized as follows :
-Biofertilizer T.harzianum treatments exceeded by giving the highest mean in the plant height, flower numbers ,chlorophyll content , Zink content in leaves and numerical density of T.harzianum fungus in soil for the growth two duration amount to 146.88 cm , 34.36 flower plant -1 , 138.79 ml M2 ,% 29.32, 15.22, 14.41 C.F.U* gm soil-1 dried soil respectively.
-While Zink treatment at level (20 mg L-1Zn) was significantly exceeded in vegetation growth characters as the plant height, flower numbers, plants chlorophyll content, Zink content in leaves and numerical density of T.harzianum fungus in soil for the growth two duration was recorded the heights mean amount to 9...41 cm , 34.19 flower plant-1 , 137.45 ml M2 , % 27.83 , 13.66 , 14. 40 C.F.U* gm soil-1 dried.

The Effect of Fertigation with Nano NPK Fertilizers on Some Parameters of Growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Hayyawi W.A.Al- juthery; Qusay M.N.Al-Shami

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 225-232
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167061

A field experimentt has been carried out in the Autumn season of 2017 in one of the fields of the College of Agriculture - University of Qadisiyah to determine the response of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to the fertigation with nano fertilizers of macro elements NPK on the growth and yield of the potato cultivar Arizona under drip irrigation system. The experiment has included 9 treatments of fertigation single Nano N, P, K, di combination nano (N+P), (N+K), (P+K), tri nano (N+P+K) and conventional fertilizers (NPK20:20:20) In addition to the comparative treatment, according to design of RCBD and one way simple treatment with 4 replicates .
Fertilizers have been injected with levels of addition of 40L h-1 of nano nitrogen fertilizer 25%N, 10 kg h-1 of nano phosphorus fertilizer 25% P and 20 kg h-1 of nano potassium fertilizer 35% K and 300 kg h-1 traditional fertilizer Tron (NPK 20:20:20) ) in four batches 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the quantities of fertilizers added to the first, second, third and fourth batches respectively. The growth parameters tested are plant height, chlorophyll content in leaves, vegetative dry matter yield, soft tubers yield, biological yield, dry tubers yield, starch, protein , The results of the Duncan test under a significant level of 0.05 showe that the following fertigation of nano (N+P+K) give has given the highest rate of vegetative qualities and the quality of all yield and significantly exceeded the di combinations and individual fertigation in some traits (plant height and chlorophyll content SPAD.higher nano(N+P+K) combination in the vegetative yield, the soft tubers yield, the biological yield, dry matter yield of tubers, the total yield protein and starch (2.148, 48.221, 11.395, 9.246,843. 871 and 6.355 Mg h-1) .

The Effect of Sulfur and Phosphate Fertilizers Application on the Dissolved Phosphorus Amount in Rhizosphere of Zea Maize L.

Raid SH. Jarallah; Nihad A. Abbas

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 233-239
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167062

The experiment has been carried out in the department of soil sciences and water resources, college of agriculture, university of Al-Qadisiyah, during the agricultural season 2017-2018 by using the design Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D). The experiment in pots has used four levels of phosphate fertilizer P0, P1, P2, P3 (0, 30, 60 and 90) kg P. h1- respectively and one level of sulfuric fertilizer (agricultural and wettable) Sa and S (200) kg S.h1-. Maize seeds of DKC 6120 variety have been in plastic pots grown. Dissolved phosphorus in the soil is estimated during plant growth periods (40, 70, and 100) days of planting to study the effect of its application levels, sulfuric fertilizer application (agricultural and wettable) fertilizers and their overlap on the amount of dissolved phosphorus into the corn rhizosphere. Results show that the highest amount of dissolved phosphorus in and out of the rhizosphere soil obtained with application of the phosphate level P3 (90) kg P. h1- which were (0.69, 0.58, 0.55) μg. g1- and (0.75, 0.63, 0.59) μg. g1- for the soils of the rhizosphere and beyond respectively during the periods (40, 70 and 100) days of planting.

Effect of Spraying Foliar with Humus and Izomen Biostimulants on Some Vegetative and Flowering Parameters of Freesia hybrida L.

Neveen Anwer Abdalla

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 240-246
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167063

The experiment has been conducted in the nursery of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, the University of Basrah to study the effect of Spraying foliar of the biostimulants Izomen and Humus on the growth and flowering of Freesia plants. The corms in similar size were planted in pots with a diameter and height of 25 cm, which filled with 2.5 kg of sterilized loam soil. After 50 days of planting, the plants sprayed with Humus at 0, 1.5, 2.5 ml L-1 and after five days sprayed with Izomen at 0, 1.5, 2.5 ml L-1. The different concentrations of biostimulants are sprayed three times, the period between one spray and another 15 is days. The results showed that the spraying of Humus at 2.5 ml L-1 significantly increased the plant height, the number of leaves and the leaf content of chlorophyll recorded (29.56 cm, 8.33 and 58.43%) respectively. Moreover, it is recorded early the flowering date (130 days), and the highest flowering mean is (2.12 inflorescence/plant) and the highest period of the remained flowers on the plant and the vase life (10 and 8 days) respectively. The effects of both Humus and Izomen were similar. In addition to the highest mean of their interaction at 2.5 ml L -1 for all the studied traits.

Effect the Treatments of Biofertilizer and Mineral Fertilizer on C ontent of N P K of Soil Cultivated with Crop Corn (Zea Mays L).

Mohammed Aajmi Salman; Jawad A. Kamal Al-Shibani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 247-256
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167064

Beneficial microorganisms play a key role in the availability of ions minerals in the soil and use Randomized Complete Block Desing ( R.C.B.D ). The objective of this paper to the study effect of the of biofertilizer and miniral treatments on availability of NPK for crop corn zea mays L.Two types of biofertilizer are Bacterial Bacillus subtilis and Fungal Trichoderma harianum. Three levels of potassium fertilizer are (2.9533, 0.4000 and 2.9533). A field experiment in fall season of 2018 Has been conducted in silty clay loam soil. The experimental Results indicated that Bacillus and Trichoderma inoculation separately or together Have made a significant effect to increase in the availability of N P K in the soil compare to other treatments. The grain yield is where (2.9533, 0.4000 and 2.9533) of bacterial and fungal bio-fertilizer and potassium fertilizers respectively as compared to the control.

Effect of Organic Additives of Okra Cultivated in Unheated Greenhouses on Certain Fruit Characteristics

Aman Hameed Jaber; Abdullah Abdul Aziz Abdullah; Dhia Ahmed Taain

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 257-265
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167065

The experiment conducted during the winter season 2017-2018 in one of the unheated greenhouse in the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture collage - All Muthanna University in the south of Iraq in All Samawah city, in order to study the "Effect of addition cows fertilizer , Water hyacinth compost and spray nanoparticle algae minutes and there impact on some qualities of okra fruits (Hasnawiya cultivar)". The experiment was contain (27) factor treatments and separated in possible combinations among three levels of bovine fertilizer (0, 2, 4) kg/m2 and three levels of Water hyacinth compost (0, 2, 4) kg/m2 and three concentrations of Organic fertilizer for marine algae nanoparticles extract (0, 0.75, 1.5) ml/L.
The statistical design is split-split plot design and the experiment performed twice for three randomized sections and compared to the averages of the coefficients using the least significant difference test at the probability level (0.05). The main results are summarized as follows.
1. The addition of bovine fertilizers in the levels of (2, 4) kg/m2 the Significant increase in the percentage of total soluble solids for fruits, by an increase of (8.64, 7.08%) and dry matter of fruits by an increase (6.04, 9.78)%. Significant increase in fiber content (0.56 and 0.95%) compared to the comparison treatment, respectively, while the level of 4 kg/m2 achieved significant increase in fruit content in vitamin C compared to the comparison treatment and an increase of 5.16%.
2. Levels (2 , 4) kg/m2 Significant increase in percentage of total dissolved solids Vitamin C increased by 24.85, 42.23% by 20.02 and 27.00% by the percentage of dry matter and by 9.91 and 12.81%, which led to a significant decrease in fiber percentage by 6.28 and 11.78% Comparative treatment, respectively.
3. Spraying with nanoparticle algae minutes in two concentrations (0.75 and 1.5) ml/l significantly increased the percentage of total dissolved solids by (27.13, 53.87)% and in the amount of vitamin C by (24.05 and 50.01%) and in percentage. The dry matter of the fruit increased by 5.90 and 12.36%, which resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of fiber by 3.74 and 1.85% compared to the comparison treatment, respectively.
4. Some bilateral and triple interference showed significant effect in some studied traits.

Comparing Genetic Variation within Red Winter Wheat Populations with and without Image-Based Optical Sorter Selection

Hussein M. Khaeim; Anthony Clark; Tom Pearson; David Van Sanford

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 266-277
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167066

Head scab is historically a devastating disease affecting not just all classes of wheat but also barley and other small grains around the world. Fusarium head blight (FHB), or head scab, is caused most often by Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), (sexual stage – Gibberella zeae) although several Fusarium spp. can cause the disease. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mass selection for FHB resistance using an image-based optical sorter. lines were derived from the C0 and C2 of two populations to compare genetic variation within populations with and without sorter selection. Our overall hypothesis is that sorting grain results in improved Fusarium head blight resistance. Both of the used wheat derived line populations have genetic variation, and population 1 has more than population 17. They are significantly different from each other for fusarium damged kernel (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON), and other FHB traits. Although both populations are suitable to be grown for bulks, population 1 seems better since it has more genetic variation as well as lower FDK and DON, and earlier heading date. Lines within each population were significantly different and some lines in each population had significantly lower FDK and DON after selection using an optical sorter. Some lines had significant reduction in both FDK and DON, and some others had either FDK or DON reduction. Lines of population 1 that had significant reduction, were more numerous than in population 17, and FDK and DON reduction were greater.

The Effect of Crossbreeding on Some Economic Traits for Chicks of Lohmann Chicken

Allawi Luaibi Dagher Al-Khauzai

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 277-282
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2019.167067

The experiment has been conducted at the poultry farm of Al-Qadisyah University, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production , for the period 24/11/2018 till 10/4/2019 by using 80 hatching chicks which belong to 20 dams and 5 sires, each sire includes 16 chicks. Four chickens are put with each sire, the first sire( Leghorn) crossbreeding with dams of Lohmann , the remaining sires are local cocks ,with five Lohmann hens. The chicks of each sire divided into two replicates ,each replicate contains 8 chicks , the experiment continues for 42 days of age.
The experiment aims to study the effect of sire groups on growth traits (weight at hatching , weight at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain ) Also , the effect of sire on weekly consumption feed , in addition to estimate the heritability for previous traits and the genetic correlations among these traits.
The results can be summarized as follows :
1- The overall means of weight at hatching , weigh at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain are 34.572 , 354.898 , 320.327 and 7.627 gm respectively , the sire groups appear significantly (p0.05) effect on weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age and weekly consumption seeds.
2- Sex has significantly (p0.05) effect on weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age.
3- The conversion feed ratio is 3.462 gm consume feed/ gm of meat.
4- The estimated values of heritability for weight at hatching weight at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain and daily weight gain , are 0.332 , 0.55 , 0.55 and 0.56 respectively.
The values of genetic correlation between weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age and between weight at hatching and weight gain are 0.98 and 0.58 respectively.