Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Volume 8, Issue 1

Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2018, Page 1-105

Development of in-vitro Sensitivity Testing for Pathogenic Bacteria

Fouad Houssein Kamel

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162643

A new method developed for in-vitro susceptibility test in medical laboratories consist of micro tubes or gloves containing dehydrated tryptic soya broth, 5% glucose, 0.1% bromothymol blue and one type of antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol) with critical concentration MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for susceptibility. Standard quality control
strains of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) suspension were adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard (1 × 106 cell/mL) were used in inoculation the media and incubated two hours at 37 °C. The MIC of ampicillin against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa were 4, 32, and 256 µg/mL of the media for the bacteria respectively, while the MIC of tetracycline against bacteria were 512, 512 and 32 µg/mL respectively, the MIC of chloramphenicol were 512, 32 and 512 µg/mL, respectively. Where, the resistant bacteria to the antibiotics could grow and ferment glucose sugar producing a color change of the media from blue to yellow, while the sensitive bacteria do not grow or show no change in color. Our study result compared with common used antibiotic disk method obtaining similar results. This developed method characterized by fast (only two hours) and less cost in comparison to conventional technique. The new micro tube strip is highly stable (more than one year) with more sensitive in detection of variable pathogenic bacteria including standard bacteria strains compared with conventional technique..

The Effect of Foliar Application with Iron and Zinc on the Growth Characteristics of Sorghum Bicolor (L) Moench

K. I.Al-Tayi; H. Kh. Khrbeet; F. H.Al-Zubadi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162644

A field has been carried out at the experimental station, college of Agriculture, in Abu-Ghralb, University of Baghdad, Iraq, during spring and autumn seasons 2014. The main objective is to find out the effects of iron concentration (0,60,90,120)mg.L-1, znic concentration (0,30,60,90) mg.L-1 and two stages of foliar application (flag leaf emergence and 50% flowering stage on some growth traits of Sorghum cv.Bohooth. 70.Layout of the experiment is R.C.B.D arranged in split-split plots designed with three replications, foliar application stages are assigned as main plots, iron as sub-plots, while zinc concentrations as a sub-sub plots.
The results show, there is insignificant effects of foliar application stages on all growth traits. Also, the results show that the addition of iron at a con more than 60 mg.l-1 height, leaf area, percentage of chlorophyll in the leaf and percentage of iron and zinc in leaf. The Highest mean of plant height and leaf area 256 and 267cm is obtained when plants are sprayed with 90 and 120 mg.l-1 in spring and autumn seasons respectively. The Highest mean of 90 mg.l-1. leaf area(6709 and 6788)cm2is obtain when plants sprayed with 120mg.l-1.
In addition the percentage of chlorophyll in the leaf and dry matter significantly influenced by iron con with 90mg.L-1 it is chlorophyll in leaf and 14.465 t.ha-1 dry matter in spring season, while the percentage of chlorophyll and dry matter are 60.5 and 14.429 t.L-1 dry matter in autumn season and are obtained by spraying plants with 120 mg.L-1 iron. Highest mean of iron in leaves in spring and autumn (75and 106) mg. kg leaf weight are obtained when plants sprayed with 120 mg.L-1 in spring and autumn seasons. Foliar application at time of flag leaf emergence give the highest plant height and leaf area, while foliar application at time of 50% flowering give the highest percentage of chlorophyll in leaf. There is no significant effect of time of foliar application on the percentage of chlorophyll, leaf area in autumn season, dry matter and percentage of iron and zinc in the leaf .Also, there is a significant effect of zinc concentration on plant height and leaf area,90 mg.L-1 Zn gives highest mean of high plant and leaf area (254 , 265 cm and 13.65, 13.662 t.h-1) in spring and autumn respectively. The result shows that zinc concentration 60 mg.L-1 give the highest mean of chlorophyll in the leaf in spring season, while 90 mg.L-1 of zinc give the highest mean of chlorophyll in the leaf autumn spring and autumn seasons. The highest mean of plant height and leaf area in spring season and percentage of chlorophyll in spring season is significantly influenced by zinc con in foliar application at time of flag leaf emergence, however, there are no significant effect of the time of foliar application of zinc on dry matter, percentage of iron and zinc in the leaves In terms of interaction between zinc and iron, there is a significant effect between 90 mg.L-1 iron in 90 mg.L-1 zinc and its give the highest mean of plan highest, leaf area and dray matter..

Study of the Effect of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Extract Activity as Antibiotic from UTI

Iman Fadhil Abdul-Hussein

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 6-12
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162645

Escherichia coli bacterial cells have been collected and selected from(30) patients (most found strain) in urine samples 25 (83.3 %) suffering from infection of urinary tract laid down in Hashimiyah teaching hospital, Babylon during a period from November 2016 to February 2017.
The isolated strain diagnosis is confirmed with Vitek 2 system apparatus which perform to identify species level of Escherichia coli isolates .To evaluate the antimicrobial action of the ethanol extract of Carob (Ceratoniasiliqua L.) pods only as well as in mixture with certain drugs (64 µg /ml ampicillin, 32 µg /ml gentamicin, 128 µg /ml amikacin, 8 µg /ml clindamycin.) as the wide usage antibiotics in the treatment of UTI bacterial infections which has led to the emergence and spread of resistant strains. Many studies show that the efficacy of antimicrobials can be improved by combining them with crude plant extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of pods of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) alone as well as in mixture with some standard antimicrobials has been evaluated using well diffusion method which demonstrates an in-vitro antibacterial activity of the tested extracts against E. Coli bacteria. A combination of the tested extracts( concentration 100%,50%) with antibacterial has increased the activity of the tested antimicrobials. The results reveal the importance of Carob plant extracts when associated with antibiotics to regulator resistance E. Coli bacteria developed as a danger to human health.

The Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilization on The Values of Soluble Potassium Inside and Outside Rhizosphere of Zea Maize (zea mays L.)

Raid Shaalan Jarallah; Jibreel Abbas Mohammed

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162646

A field experiment is carried out in a private farmer's farm located in AL-Qadisiyah/ Diwaniyah/ Daghara/ Sadr Al-Daghara area to study the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on dissolved potassium values inside and outside Zea maize rhizosphere. The randomized complete block design (RCBD) is designed in three replicates with two factors: the first is factor with four levels of potassium sulphate which are (0, 75, 150, 225) kg K. ha-1 symbolized by the symbols (K0, K1, K2, K3) respectively, and the second factor with four levels of organic matter (poultry residues) which are (0, 10, 20, 30) tons. ha-1 symbolized by the symbols (O0, O1, O2, O3) respectively. The seeds of Zea maize (Zea mays L.) are cultivated in the form of lines (DKC 6120) 20/7/2016.
The results show that the addition of potassium sulphate in different levels has achieved a significant increase in the amount of soluble potassium inside and outside the soil of the root zone and for all time periods (40,70,100) days of planting and the mineral fertilizer has exceeded the organic fertilizer in increasing the amount of soluble potassium and the interaction between the highest level of potassium fertilizer 225 kg k. ha-1 and the highest level of organic fertilizer 30 tons. ha-1 (K3O3) achieves the highest amount of soluble potassium within the root zone which amounted to (0.131,0.163) soil-1 respectively, and (0.179,0.167) soil-1 outside the root zone respectively for the periods (40,70) days of planting respectively, while after 100 days of planting the interaction (K2O3‌) achieved the highest amount of soluble potassium which is amounted to 0.114 soil-1 inside the root zone and the interaction (K3O3) achieves the highest amount of soluble potassium which is amounted to 0.159 soil-1 outside the root zone and a decrease in the amount of soluble potassium in all treatments is noticed with the increase of plant growth time.

Effect of Foliar Zinc Application and Irrigation with Magnetic Water on Zinc Concentration in Grain , Growth and Rice Yield Variety Alyasmin ( Oryza Sativa L. ) .

R. A. H. Jassim

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162647

A field experiment is conducted in Al – Najaf Governorate during summer season 2015 to study the effects of magnetic water irrigation and Zinc foliar applications on Zinc concentration in grain , yield and growth of rice (Oriza sativa L.) of Yasmin variety . Treatments include using zinc ( ZnSo4.7H2O ( 23 % ZN ) with three levels (0 , 75 , 150) mg.zn.L-1 and tow levels of magnetic water irrigation ( magnetic 3500 gauss and no treatment ) Split plot according to RCBD with three replicates is designed . The following results are obtained :
1- The levels of magnetic water irrigation have significant effect on zinc concentration 32.6 mg . kg-1 grain , straw yield 9.75 mega gm. h-1 , plant height 116 cm , length of spikelet 27.03 cm, no. of seed in spikelet 130 seeds , wt. of 1000 grain ( 20gm ) .
2- There is a significant effect of the level of foliar Zinc on % fertility 17.75 % , grain yield 6.14 mega gm.h-1 ,zinc concentration 32.7 mg . kg-1 grain , no. of spikelet 409.3 .m-2 , straw yield straw yield 9.72 mega gm. h-1 , plant height 116 cm , length of spikelet 26.9 cm.
3 - The interaction between magnetic water & levels of Zinc application affects significantly in the grain yield 6.77 mega gm.h-1 , straw yield 10.28 mega gm. h-1 and zinc concentration in grain 35.3 mg grain , plant height 119 cm , length of spikelet 28.7 , no. of seed in spikelet (143 seeds) , weight of 1000 grain ( 20.6 gm. ) .
) .

Knowledge of Broiler Breeders Regarding Disease Infectious[IB] in Al-Saniya District / Al-Qadisiyah Province.

Ashwaq Abdul Al Razzaq; Naji Radhi Fakhri Mousa

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162648

The research is aimed of specifying the knowledge level of broiler breeders concerning infectious disease Bronchitis (IB) in Saniya district Al-Qadisiya province and to identify the knowledge level of the respondents in each axis of the axes defined as following: (knowledge with Nutrition and preventive measures and health care, as well as to identify the knowledge relationship level of the respondents in all of the following independent variables: Age, academic achievement and years of experience and energy productivity. To achieve the objectives of the research after briefing research concerning the knowledge about infectious bronchitis as well as illumination with experts and specialists opinions in the field of agricultural extension and broiler, Knowledge test has been identified which consists of 40 items are distributed on the axes defined above. Each paragraph has a degree, thus degrees of the test ranging from 0-40 degrees. Research community includes all the broiler breeders in AL- Saniya district ( 70 breeders), random sample of 50 breeders has been taken from them with72%.
The research concludes that the highest numerical value obtained by the respondents in the knowledge of the disease is 34 degrees, and the lowest numerical value concerning (11) with an average score of (24.04) degree and a standard deviation of $ (5,443) degrees and the knowledge level of respondents describe as an average. . Results show that there is a correlation between the knowledge level of respondents and age. There is significant positive correlation the knowledge level of respondents, academic achievement, years of experience and energy productivity. The researcher recommends the agricultural extension to have the role in the provision of extension services to farmers..

Preparation of Organic Selenocystine Using Locally Isolated Yeast

Fouad Houssein Kamel

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 23-28
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162649

Selenium is a toxic inorganic form at very low concentration in life, while the organic-selenium compounds are appreciable interest and various of them have essential roles in nutritional science and cell biochemistry. Selenium-enriched yeast (Se-yeast) is a public form of selenium used to additional dietary intake of this essential trace mineral. In this study, an organic selenocystine by using locally isolated bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)is prepared. A novel locally prepared date extract media enriched by 0.2% potassium phosphate (KH2PO4), 0.6% ammonium sulfate is adopted as alternative culture media. Selenium salt is used in different concentrations (30, 60, 120 and 240 μg/mL), which are added to the yeast culture media. While the best concentration of selenium added is 30μg/mL, it achieves optimal conditions for the growth of red color yeast identical to the standard. The organic selenocystine is analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) as compared with standard product obtained from Sigma. Results confirmed the formation of similar selenocystine products. .

The Effect of the Treatment of Foliar Different Nutritional and Hormonal on the Growth Yield of Four Varieties of Vica faba L.

Salama T. Al-Musawi; Faisal M. M. Al-Tahir

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162650

A field experiment is conducted during winter season 2015-2016 at Al-Bender zone dependent to farmer (3 km province center) to study effect of foliar of different treatment (Auxin, Boron, Proline and control) on growth and yield of four faba bean varieties(Aquadulce, Filo Semilles, Grano violetto and local). The experiment is Split-plot arrangement with Randomize Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. Varieties have occupied the main plots while the treatment occupied the sub-plot.
The result of the experiment shows the treatment spry of Auxin get high mean of the height of plant (cm), No. of fertility branches, percentage contract(47%), total grain yield(3215 kg h-1) and content seed protein without significance of Boron spry treatment, also the harvest index was non-significant with treatment of with spraying of Boron and Proline. treatment of spry of proline is significant in branches vegetative and content seed proline.
The results show that the Aquadulec variety reaches the highest plant height , seed100 weight (178.2 gm) and total grain yield(3342 kg h-1). Variety Grano violetto reaches the highest leaf chlorophyll content, No. Pods per plant(33.06 Pods plant-1) No. vegetative branches, No. of seed per Pods(4.26 seed Pods-1) and seed proline content.
The combination of (Aquadulce-Auxin) reaches the highest means of plant height, fresh weight plant, While the combination (Aquadulce-Boron) give the highest No. of Pods (43.85 pod plant-1) and total grain yield(4084 kg h-1).-1).

Structural Changes in Iraqi Agricultural Sector and their Relationship with other Economic Sectors During the Period (1990 – 2015)

Nagham R. Mohammed; Bassim H. Al-Badri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162651

The purpose of this research is to analyze the changes of the agricultural sector of the GDP and ratio of the agricultural employment , the total employment .In addition to the relation of the agricultural sector with other sectors in the economy of Iraq . It appears that economic growth ,measured as a growth rate in the real per- capta GDP , and population growth cause a decrease in both. The contribution of the agricultural sector to the GDP and the agricultural employment measured in absolute terms and as a ratio to the total . .

Cryopreservation Sperm Epididymis of Iraqi Camels and Activation After thawing by Using Q10

Ali Abdullah. al Saadoon; Muhammad Baqir; Haider Muhammad al–Jubouri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 35-39
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162652

This study is conducted at the laboratory of post-graduate studies / department of Animal Production / College of Agriculture / University of Al –Muthanna for the period from 17/2 to 14/9/ 2016 to investigate the ability of cryopreservation of epididymal sperms for Iraqi camels and the effect of adding of Q10 thawing solution. The testes are collected from the abattoir directly after slaughtering of animals and transferred to the laboratory in proper temperature. The sperms are collected from the cauda of epididymis and immerged in smart medium previously prepared. The experiment was divided in to third treatments the first (control) , the second thawing solution with 5µM Q10 concentration , the three thawing solution with 10µM Q10 concentration .The results of the study show significant superiority )P≤0.05( for the third treatment 10µM Q10 over the first and second treatments in the individual motility, mass motility and agglutination,. The individual motility types A,B,C are 15.4286 ± 0.53 ، 15.4286 ± 0.70 ، 17.0952 ± 0.52 respectively ، significant superiority )P≤0.05( for first treatment over the second and third treatments The individual motility types(D) and agglutination are 60.1190 ± 1.18 ، 20.4762 ± 0.33 respectively . 52.1429±1.34 .

The Role of Magnetized Water in Improving Dietary Supplements and Their Effect on the Life Performance of Honey Bee Colonies Apis mellifera L.

A. M. Saeed; M. A. Al-Kinany

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162653

This study is conducted by using strain of hybrid local honeybees Apis mellifera L. from 20th of April to 20th of July 2016 in Wassit Provence / Al-kut city. This study aims at discovering the effect of magnetic food on the activity of honey bee colonies and improve their production in the spring and summer seasons . Three magnetic power are treated in this study (1000, 2000, 3000) Gauss.
The results show that honeybee colonies fed with magnetized food are significantly higher in both open and closed incubation brood, and are higher in density compared to natural feeding.
For the open brood area, the magnetic food treatments G 2000 and G3000 exceed 3024.57 and 3382.67 cm2 respectively. The lowest comparative treatment is 2772.81 cm2 / hive, the treatment G 3000 exceed the treatments G 1000 and 2000 G and the treated G 1000 as an average brood area open is 2908.75 cm2 / hive, Similarly, closed brood area for workers the magnetic food treatments 2000 G and G3000 are 2792.12 and 3205.91 cm2 / hive respectively, while the comparison treatment is 2533.14 cm2 / hive, and the treatment G 3000 exceed the treatments G 1000 and G 2000 Where treatment 1000 G give the average closed brood area of 2652.78 cm2 / hive.
Density is the highest for G 2000 and G 3000 are 13.17 and 14.12 frame / hive respectively, while the lowest comparison treatment is 10.59 frame / hive..

Molecular Investigation of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Identification its Isolates Disseminated in some Tomato Protected Culture in Al-Qadisiyah Province.

H. H. Shobber; N. Al-Kuwaiti

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 48-56
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162654

This study aimed at conducting a molecular investigation of some virus isolates associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Ten tomato samples exhibiting TYLCD are collected from fields and tunnel at certain tomato growing area in Al-Qadisiyah Province (El-HamzaEl-Sharqi district, Al-Sadeer and Al-Sunnia).. Begomoviruses are investigated by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Deng a genus specific primer set in symptomatic samples. The amplified DNA fragments of expected size are sequenced, analyzed and compared to equivalent Gene Bank sequences using MEGA6 software. PCR technique using Deng primers could detect begomoviruses when amplified the 540 bp DNA fragments from 6 out of 10 symptomatic tomato samples. Sequence analysis shows that sequences obtained shared 96 - 99.5% nucleotide (nt) sequence identities with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) equivalent Gene bank coat protein CP sequences from Cuba (AJ223505), USA (AY530931) and Israel (AB110217). Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree constructed from partial coat protein region confirmed the relatedness when grouped all sequences obtained to equivalent sequences belong to TYLCV from Gen Bank but not to other begomovirus species. Sequence comparison shows that TYLCV isolates are variable when share nt sequence 91-100% (approximated)to each other’s, which indicates that sequences isolated may belong to different TYLCV strains. The high nucleotide sequence identities suggests that TYLCV may have been introduced to Al-Qadisiyah Provence through infected plant materials, however full length sequence comparisons and biological assays are required to confirm this relatedness and resolve the possible origin of TYLCV isolates in Al-Qadisiyah Province..

The Effect of Some Plants Water Extracts on Nitrification Inhabitation In Soil , nitrogen uptake , growth and product of wheat plant Triticum aestivuimL.

Hanoon N. Kadhem AL-Barakat

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162655

A field experiment is conducted in Al- Muthanna province beside sweer river during the growing season of 2015. The experiment was carried to evaluate the efficiency water extracts of some plants (Caper seeds, carlic ) and urea treated with DMPP on the nitrification inhibition, ,NO3¯-N and NH4+-N concentrations in soil ,Nitrogen uptake, dry matter, seed weight. Plants extracts are applied to at the rate of 1:10 (extract: urea). Conventional urea and urea with extracts and DMPP are applied at the rates of 80 , 160 , 240 Kg N h - 1 at two doses. Factorial Experiment carried out according to RCBD with three replications. Soil samples (at depth 0-30) cm are collected four times 15,30,45 and 60 day during growing season after add it fertilizer. Results of the study could be summarized as: Water extract of caper seeds results in significantly higher nitrification inhibition , nitrogen uptake, dry matter and seed weight than that caused by chemical inhibitor DMPP and urea without inhibitor . Plants fertilized with level 160 Kg N h – 1 as urea amended with kipper plant extract results in a significantly higher than that of plant fertilized with all treatments than level 240 Kg N h – 1..

Salinity and Compost Amendment Impact on Al-Kaline Phosphate Activity in Rhizoshere of Tomato and Bean plants.

Luma S.J.Al-Taweel; Radhi K.Al-Rashidi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 69-79
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162656

The aim of this study is to investigate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (extracellular enzyme) in vertical and horizontal developing direc tions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plots experiment is performed in College of Agriculture / University of Al-Qadissiya for the spring season 2013 ,the sandy loam soil is used to cultivate Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salinity , 6 , 8 and 10) dS.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 and 20)T.h-1 , their interactions completely randomized design (CRD) is used with six replicates, and the means of treatments are compared by L.S.D test 5% level .
The results are summarized as :
1- The enzyme activity are increased with increasing of the adding compost level 20Ton.h-1 and its interactions with salinity levels .
2- The enzymes activity are varied in rhizosphere development directions and the plants are differ in the site of highest activity , the enzyme activity in horizontal rhizosphere development direction is higher than the vertical direction .
3- The enzyme activity in bean rhizosphere is higher than in Tomato rhizosphere in activity except of the alkaline phosphatase at all rhizoshere vertical and horizontal directions .
4- The high inhibitor percentage of enzyme activity is at the level of 10 dS.m-1 salinity and the lowest is at the 6 dS.m-1 . The inhibition percentage are increased in vertical direction of rhizosphere developing (5-10)cm in tomato plant. The adding compost levels are varied by increasing or decreasing of enzyme activity according to rhizosphere development and it sites ..

The Use of Infrared Technique in the Study of Mica Weathering in the Rhizosphere Soil and Bulk Soil Under Different Plant Covering.

Salman K. Essa; Ali I. Hussein Al–Qaisi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 80-91
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162657

Three soil sites are chosen in the holy governorate of Kerbala / Al-Husseiniya region, for three types of trees (Morus, palm, and Citrus aurantium). Soils are characterized by similar texture, parent material, topography, climatic conditions and equal rainfall, in order to study the effect of biochemical activities in rhizosphere on weathering of mica and compare it with Bulk soil, by using of infrared technology.
Results of IR spectrum inspections for Bulk soil show that the absorption spectra at wave length 1500-1650 cm-1 representing a zeolite water, with varying degrees of widens, reflecting the variation in degrees of clay minerals hydrolysis in these soils. In general the rhizosphere clay of Morus trees show the widest range of this absorption spectra, followed by the rhizosphere clays of Palms and Citrus aurantium trees respectively. The results show a presence spectrum of 3000-3800 cm-1 representing the substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ in tetrahedra sheet of mica, and the increasing width of this spectrum reflect more substitution of Al3+ for Si4+. Results show that the lowest width of this spectrum is found in rhizosphere soil of Morus trees, reflecting a high proportion of smectite in this soil.
The low abundance of 1500 - 1650 cm-1 spectrum in Bulk soil of all trees, indicates the low degree of hydrolysis of the clay minerals in these soils. Also, the result show that the narrow spectrum range 1000 - 1050 cm-1, is found in all Bulk soils, which confirms the decline of transformation process of mica towards the 2:1 minerals in these soils..

A Comparative Study of the Properties of Mica in Rhizosphere and Bulk Soil Under Different Plant Covering.

Salman K. Essa; Ali I. Hussein Al–Qaisi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 92-105
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2018.162658

Results of x-ray diffractions for Bulk soil, represented by the horizontal distance 50H, show the presence of low-crystalline chlorite, smectite and regular interstratified chlorite- smectite in soil under Citrus aurantium trees. Re sults of clay sample in soil of palm tree show a presence of smectite and swelling chlorite, while the presence of the interstratified minerals is very low. Also the results show a presence of swelling chlorite, smectite and Biotite in soil of Morus trees. Generally, the results show that the process of mica transformation into 2:1 minerals in the Bulk soil, is very weak.
The x-ray results show that the rhizosphere soil(0) of Citrus aurantium trees content is smectite and mica, with regular interstratified mica-smectite, while the results show the presence of smectite, chlorite, and regular interstratified chlorite- smectite and mica-smectite, in rhizosphere soil of palm trees. As well as the inspection of clay samples of Morus trees, show the presence of chlorite and smectite with two types of interstratified minerals, irregular smectite-mica and regular mica-smectite.
In general, the results of x-ray show that the transformation process of mica to 2:1 expandable minerals in rhizosphere soil exceeds the Bulk soil of all type of trees. While the superiority of mica weathering, and increase of Smectite content in all rhizosphere soils are taken as in the following sequence:
Morus trees soil > Palm trees soil > Citrus aurantium trees soil