Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Soil and Water Sciences, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
To study the state of potassium in the soil using the intensity and capacitance relationships, and to find out the effect of adding mineral fertilizers NPK and biochar on the dry weight of the vegetative part and seeds, as well as on the potassium content in the vegetative part and seeds of corn crops, we chose the field of the College of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul. The field was divided into nine blocks with three replications according to a randomized complete block design. Urea was used as a source of nitrogen at three levels (0, 160, 320) kg h-1, while potassium sulfate was added as a source of potassium at three levels (0, 40, 80) kg K2O h-1, and also tri-superphosphate fertilizer was used as a source of phosphorus at three levels (0, 100, 200) kg ha-1, noting that nitrogen was added in two batches, the first before planting and the second batch a month after germination. Biochar was added at three levels: %0, %1, and %2. The results indicated that the values of the ionic activity ratio ranged between (0.056 -0.141) mol. L-0.5, while the values of labile potassium ranged between (2.980-7.852) Cmolc.kg-1, and the free energy values ranged between (-1705.371) cal. mole kelvin-1 and (-1160.957) cal. mole kelvin-1, whereas the values of the Potential Buffering Capacity ranged between (45.346 -55.737) Cmolc.kg-1/mol-1.L0.5.
- Al-Barzanji, Saja Kamal Najm Al-Din Muhammad Ali Al-Barzanji (2019). A study of the intensity and capacitance relationships to determine the regulatory capacity for adsorption and liberation of potassium under different forest covers of northern Iraq. Master thesis. College of Agriculture and Forestry. University of Mosul.
- Al-Jubouri, Mahmoud Shaker and Walaa Mahmoud Shaker (2019). Effect of spraying with potassium element on the growth of broad bean plant VICIA FABA L.. Kirkuk University Journal, (187-174) 0849-1992, 2616-6801.
- Al-Samarrai, A. A. A. (2005). Status. and Behavioral of Potassium in Green Houses Soils . Ph.D Dissertation -College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad pp:125.
- Cooke, G. W. (1979). Some priorities for British soil science. journal of soil science. vol. 30, p:187-213.
- Abd, Mahdi Abd al-Kadhim and Ali Issa Hussein al-Qaisi (2013). The use of thermodynamic criteria in the assessment of potassium availability in calcareous soils of the Middle Euphrates region. Al-Furat Journal of Agricultural Sciences 226-217: (3)5.
- [Al-Abdali, Rana Saadallah (2017). The effect of organic reformers on the intensity-capacity relations of potassium in calcareous soils from northern Iraq. Al-Rafidain Agriculture Journal. Vol. (54) No. (3).
- Subba Rao A, Srivastava S (Eds.) (2001). Soil test based fertilizer recommendations for targeted yield of crops. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Soil Testing for Balanced and Integrated Use of Fertilizers and Manures, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India, 1-326.
- Wang, F. L. and P. M. Scott. (2001). effects of organic matter on the rate of potassium adsorption by soils. can. J. Soil Sci. .81: 325-330.
- Al-Obaidi Muhammad Ali Jamal, Muhammad Taher Saeed Khalil, Alvand Tahir Dazai (2011). A study of the intensity and quantitative measures of potassium in some calcareous soils of northern Iraq. Al-Rafidain Agriculture Journal, Volume (39), Issue (2).
- Beckett, P. H. T. (1964). Studies on soil potassium II: The immediate Q/I relations of label potassium in the soil. J. Soil Sci. 15: 9-23.
- Sparks, D. L. (2000). Bio-availability of Soil Potassium In Handbook of soil Walcolml sumnered 2000 C.R.C. Press. New York.
- Sparks, D. L. (1998). Soil physical chemistry CRC Press, Boca, Raton New York, Washington, D. C.
- Griffin, R. A. and J. Jurinak. (1973). The interaction of phosphate with calcite Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 37:847- 850.
- Lindsay, W. L. (1979). Chemical equilibrium in soils John wiley New York. Chen J.H. and Barber S.A. (1990). Effect of liming and adding phosphate on predicated phosphorus up take by wheat on acid soils of three orders Soil. Sci. 150: 844-8503.
- Woodruff C. M., (1955). Energies of replacement of Ca and K in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 19: 167-171.
- Bilias, F.; Barbayiannis, N. (2019). Potassium-Fixing Clay Minerals as Parameters That Define K Availability of K-Deficient Soils Assessed with a Modified Mitcherlich Equation Model. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 19, 830–840. [Cross Ref]
- Hamed, M. H, and Amin, E. Z.,(2017). Evaluation of potassium Quantity-Intensity in some soils of El-Dakhla Oasis, New Valley, Egypt. Alexandria Science Exchange journal, 38, 1, 112-119.
- AL-Obaidi M. A.; H. M. Al-Hamandi.; M. M. aljumaily, and M. J, Farhan (2019). Quantity-intensity Characteristics of Potassium in some calcareous gypsiferros Soils in Iraq Inter- disciplinary Environmental Studies (11). (2) Part I.
- Al-Jumaily M M.; H. M.; Al-Hamandi, M. A. Al-Obaidi, and R. R. Al-Zidan (2022). Quantity intensity ratio of potassium in gypsiferrous soils in Iraq- Pesq. Agropec. Trop, Gosinia, v. 52, e71620, Research Article e-ISSN 1983-4063- www.agro.ufg br/ pat.
- Lalitha, M.; and Dhakshinamoorthy, M., (2015). Quantity-intensity characteristics of potassium (K) in relation to potassium availability under different cropping system in alluvial soils. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 10, 2097-2103.
- Panda, R. and Patra, S. K. (2018). Quantity-intensity relations of potassium in representative coastal soils of eastern India. Geoderma https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Geoderma 2018. 07. 014,1-9.
- Islam A.; Sirajul Karim A. J. M.; Suleiman A. R. M.; Shafiqul Islam M.D. and M. D. Abu Saleque, (2017). Eight-year long potassium fertilization effects on quantity/intensity relationship of soil potassium under double rice cropping Soil & Tillage Research 169 99-117, International Potash Institute (IPI) (2016). Potassium in plant production. Basel/Switzerland. 1-44.
- Rao CS, and Srinivas K. (2017). Potassium dynamics and role of non-exchangeable potassium in crop nutrition. Indian J. Fertile. 13(4):80-94.
- Zhang, H., Li, Q., Zhang, X., Chen, W., Ni, J., Yang, L., & Wei, R. (2020). Insight into the mechanism of low molecular weight organic acidsmediated release of phosphorus and potassium from biochars. Science of The Total Environment, 742, 140-416.
- Shalash, Zahraa Wahih (2020). The role of integrated fertilization of phosphorus and treated with biochar in the availability of phosphorus and the growth potential of corn (Zea mays L.) in two soils of different textures. Master thesis. University of Basra.
- Mam Rasul ,Ghafoor Ahmed (2008). PHYSICO-CHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF POTASSIUM IN PREDOMINANT SOIL ORDERS OF SULAIMANI GOVERNORATE. Ph. D. University of Sulaimani.