Document Type : Review Paper


1 Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, College of Health Sciences/ University of Duhok

2 Medical Laboratory Sciences Department, College of Health Sciences, University of Duhok, Iraq

3 Anesthesia Sciences Department, College of Health Sciences, University of Duhok, Iraq


Globally, there is a severe problem with antibiotic resistance in animals and humans. It may result in diseases that are extremely challenging to treat. In certain situations, conventional antibiotics used to treat an illness may no longer be effective in poultry and an alternative treatment is used. Therefore, using probiotics instead of antibiotic therapy to treat specific health issues in both humans and animals can achieve the desired result, such as preventing infectious zoonotic diseases and enhancing general health. Probiotics are friendly live microorganisms like normal flora, when consumed in a sufficient dose which produces positive effects on the host. This review aimed to prove that using probiotics in poultry instead of antibiotics can fight the spread of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter to humans by ingestion of undercooked poultry meat infected with these bacteria and also increase antibiotic resistance to humans. Finally, concluded that probiotics play a potential role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes in our natural environments, we believe it is crucial to implement proper regulation on their use in both livestock and human applications globally.


Main Subjects

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