Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq.

2 Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq.



A factorial experiment was carried out in the experimental field of the Ankawa Research Center in Erbil Governorate, during the spring season of 2023 to know the effect of plant density on the morphological characteristics of different varieties of wheat. The randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with three replicates, where three varieties of wheat were planted: Adana99, Hawler2, Hawler4, and three levels of plant or seed densities (450, 400, 350) m2. The results showed significant differences between the average interference of plant density with wheat varieties for the studied characteristics, as the average overlap between the density exceeded (400) plants. m2 and the Hawler2 variety in terms of significance and in terms of being the highest values of the averages in all the characteristics studied over the rest of the average overlap between densities and varieties. Returning to the average interaction between the density (400) plants. m2 and class Hawler2 The average overlap values were (11.36) for chlorophyll content (A), (3.23) for chlorophyll content (B), (5.22) for carotene content, (206.05) for protein content in dry leaves and stems, (205.08) for proline content in leaves, (4.24) for ascorbic acid content, (42.77) for soluble sugars content, (80.73) for carbohydrate content, (4.99) for phosphorus percentage, and (36.15) for nitrogen percentage. And (15.61) for the percentage of potassium, (10.16) for the percentage of calcium, and (3.26) for the percentage of magnesium.


Main Subjects

  1. R. Davis, J. Collins, W.W. Fish, Y. Tadmor, C.L. Webber, P. Perkins-Veazie, J. Food Sci., 2007, 72, S319.
  2. Adnan, Tawfiq Omar (2015), Estimation of Some Food Additives and Metal Elements in Soft Drinks and Juices, Master Thesis, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Samarra University.
  3. Ahmad , Z.; M. Y. Mujahid ; M.A.Khan ;.M. Qamar ;N.S .Kisana and S.Z.Mustafa (2009).Evaluation of promising bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum) lines under normal and late planting. J, Agric. Res . 47(2).
  4. AL-Baddrani W, A AL-Romy I. The effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer (urea) on some characteristics of wheat Growth cultivars (spp. Triticum). College Of Basic Education Research Journal. 2013 Sep 28;12(3):723-32.
  5. Al-Fahdawi HM. Effect of compound fertilizer (dap) on growth and yield of soft wheat varieties triticum aestivum l. Anbar journal of agricultural sciences. 2019;17(1).
  6. AL-HASSAN, Mohammed FH, et al. Respons to several varieties of wheat news (Triticum aestivum L.) rates for different seeds. Thi-Qar University Journal for Agricultural Researches, 2014, 3.1.
  7. Ali, Iyad Hussein and Hala Razak Hamza (2013). The effect of different cultivation methods on the growth and yield of four varieties of bread wheat. Al-Furat Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(4): 100-94.
  8. Al-Kharraz, Abdel Fattah Mohamed., Al-Kabir, Haniyeh Bashir., Sassi, Mohamed Suleiman., 2019. Estimation of vitamin C in some fresh local fruits. Journal of Science (8): 11-14.
  9. Al-Khateeb, S.A. (2002). Effects of NaCl and NaR 2 R SoR 4 R on growth, lon and water relations of Atriplex halimus. The Second Saudi Symposiuum on Halophytes Plantation, 17-20 / 3/2002.Riyadh.
  10. Al-Saadoun, Ammar and Badan, et al. Determining the degree of kinship of the apparent indicators of some Iraqi varieties and Egyptian inputs and knowing their performance. Journal of Plant Production, 2022, 13.5: 183-187.
  11. Al-Younis, Abdel Hamid Ahmed and Mahfouz Abdel Qader and Zaki Abdel Elias (1987). Grain crops. Directorate of Dar Al-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, University Mosul, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq.
  12. Ansari, M.A.; H.R. Meman; S.D. Tunio; and S.A. Keerio (2006). Effect of planting pattern on growth
  13. AOAC (1980). Official Methods of Analysis. Published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Washington DC, 13th Ed.
  14. Apente, R. K.(2002). Food Protein Analysis Quantitative Effects on Processing. Pub. Marcel Dekker, Inc. PP:463.
  15. Balouchi, H.R.; Z.T. Sarve‘stani and S.A. Mohammad, 2005. Agronomic factors on selected hulless barley genotypes. J. of Agron.4 (4):333-339.
  16. Bates, L. ; Waldren, R. P. and Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207. Bauer, A. A.; Frank, A. B. and Black, A. L. (1984). Estimation of spring wheat leaf growth rates and anthesis from air temperature. Agron. J., 76: 829 – 835.
  17. Black, C.A. (1965). Methods of soil analysis; Amer. Soc of Agron. Mono .No.9 part 2
  18. Caglar, O., S. Bulut, M.M. Karaoglu, H.G. Kotancilar, and A. Ozturk. 2011. Quality response of facultative wheat to winter sowing, freezing, and spring sowing at different seeding rates. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10 (Supple.):3368-3374
  19. Daoud, Wissam Malik. 1999. Effect of nitrogen and seed quantities on the growth, yield, and quality of five varieties of Spelt bread (Triticum aestivum L.) Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. The University of Baghdad.
  20. Del-Cima, R., M.F. Dantuono and W.K Anderson. 2004. The effects of soil type and seasonal rainfall on the optimum seed rate for wheat in Western Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44: 585–594.
  21. Dere, S., Gunes,T. and Sivaci, R. (1998). Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll- A, B, and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Tr. J. of Botany, 22: 13-17.
  22. Destro, D., E. Miglioranza, C.A. Arrabal arias, J.M. Vendrame and J.C. Almeida., 2001. Main stem and tiller contribution to wheat cultivars yield under different irrigation regimes. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 44: 325–330.
  23. Dubios M‚ Gilles. K‚ Omiltin. J‚ Rebers‚ P and Smith. F.(1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and retarded substances ‚ analytical chemistry. 28(3).350-356.
  24. EL-Banna, M.N.; M.A.A. Nassar; M.N. Mohamed and M.A. Boseely, 2011. Evaluation of 16 barley genotypes under calcareous soil condition in Egypt.J.of Agric.Sci.3 (1):105-121.
  25. FAO (2021). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ، Statistics Division, From URL,
  26. (2019). Statistics of food and agriculture organization. Rome. Italy
  27. Haynes, R.J.(1980). A comparison of two modified kieldahl digestion techniques multi-element plants analysis with conventional wet and dry ashing methods communications in Soil Sci. and plant analysis II:459-467.
  28. Heldt, H. W. (2005). Plant Biochemistry. Published by Academic Press. Third Edition. pp: 657.
  29. Herbert, D., Philips, P. J., and R. E. Strange. 1971.In Methods in Microbiology. Norris, J.R. and Robbins, D.W. (eds.) Acad., press, London and New York .5B. Chap.3.
  30. W.G.. (2003): Physiologie végétale. Université des Sciences et Technologie de Lille. Edition de boeck. P: 99-119.
  31. Hyun, D. Y.; Lee, I. S.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, S. J.; Seo, Y. W.; and Lee, Y. I. (2003). Selection of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant cell lines by in vitro mutagenesis rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Biotech., 5(1):43-49.
  32. Jedel, P.E. and J.H.Helm.1995.Agronomic response to the seeding rate of two-and-six-rowed barley cultivars in central Alberta .can. J. plant sci.75:315-320.
  33. Johari-Pirevatlou, M. ; Qasimov, N. and Maralia, H. (2010) . Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat lines. African J. of Biotechnology, 9(1):36-40.
  34. Keyvan, Sh. (2010). The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates, and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, Vol. 8:Issue 3: 1051-1060.
  35. Lazaar (1995): Study of plants three types of durum wheat suffering from poor vegetative growth, research for a postgraduate certificate in plant physiology University of Constantine
  36. MANSKE, G.G.B.; ORTIZ;MONASTERIO, J.I.;VANGINKEL,M.; GONZALEZ, R.M.; FISCHER, R.A.; RAJARAM,S.; VLEK, P.L.G. Importance P- uptake efficiency versus P-utilization for wheat yield in acid and calcareous soils In Mexico.European Journal of Agronomy, 14, 4, 2001, 261-274.
  37. Neil, R. R., E. W. French, B. K. Hoag, and T. J. Conolon. 1979. The effect of seeding rate on spring wheat yields in Western North Dakotaupdate. Agric. and Univ. Extension Archives.…./5227. 37(2): 15-20.
  38. Noulas , C. (2002). Parameters of nitrogen use efficiency of Swiss spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum ). A dissertation of Ph. D. to Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Zurich.
  39. NoworoLink, K.2010.Effect of sowing rate on yield and grain quality of new cultivars of spring barley.Polish J.Agron.3:20-23.
  40. O'Denovan, J. T.; T. K. Turkington; M. J. Edney and G. W. Clayton. 2011. Seedling rate, nitrogen rate, and cultivars effect on malting Barley Production. Agron. J. 103(3): 709-716.
  41. Olaru, L., F. Oncica, and G. Matei. 2008 . Response of wheat grain yield and quality to seed rate of Oltenia, Romania. P. 588-590. In Proceedings of 43rd Croatian and 3ed International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija, Croatia
  42. Omari, Mohammed Ragheb (2003). The effect of organic fertilizer use on productivity Varieties of municipal wheat. Master's Thesis, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University Success.
  43. Osborne J. Total Reorganisation of an Occupational and Industrial Therapy Department. Occupational Therapy: The Official Journal of the Association of Occupational Therapists. 1970;33(10):10-12.
  44. Ottman, M. J.; T. A. Doerge and V. A. Hapy (2000). Durum grain quality is affected by nitrogen fertilization near anthesis and irrigation during grain fill. Agro. Jour. 92: 1035 1041.
  45. Page, A.L.; Miller, R.H. and Kenney, D.R. 1982. Method of Soil.
  46. REUTER, D.J.; ELLIOT, D.E.; REDDY, G.D. and ABBOTT, R.J. Phosphorus nutrition of spring wheat (Tritium aestivum L.)1-Effects of phosphorus supply on plant symptoms, yield, components of Yield, and plant phosphorus uptake.Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 48,6, 1997, 855-868.
  47. ROCHA, T.; MARTY-AUDOUIN, C.; LEBERT, André. Effect of drying temperature and blanching on the degradation of chlorophyll a and b in mint (Mentha spicata Huds.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum): Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Chromatographia, 1993, 36: 152-156.‏
  49. Santarius, K.A. (1992). Freezing of isolated thylakoid membranes in complex media. VIII.Differential cryoprotection by sucrose, proline, and glycerol. Physiol. Pl., 84: 87- 93.
  50. SAUDI, A. H.; AL-HASSAN, M. F. H.; JW, M. EFFECT OF SOWING BY DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES ON QUALITATIVE TTIATS OF FOUR WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVAR SEEDS. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2016, 47.2.‏
  51. Shafi, M.; J. Bakht; F. Jalal; M. Amankhan and S.G Khattak. 2011. Effect of nitrogen application on yield and yield components of barley (Hordeum Vulgarel.). Pak. J. Bot., 43(3): 1471- 1475.
  52. Shawa, Farouk (2001). The experience of the Arab Center in the field of supplementary irrigation in The Arab World Journal of Agriculture and Water in the Arid Areas in the country Arab. League of Arab States, No. 21: 45-62.
  53. Singh, I. D. and N. C. Stoskopf. 1971. Harvest index in cereals. Agro. J. 63:222-226.
  54. SUBEDI, K. D., AND B. L. MA.Nitrogen uptake and partitioning in stay-green and leafy maize hybrids. Crop Sci,.vol. 45,2005,746 –747
  55. Tisdale, S. L. et al. (1997). Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 5th edition, Macmillan publishing Co., New Delhi. Pp. 144, 180, 198, 2001.
  56. Veselinka, Z., J. Boskovic, D. Knezevic , and D. Micanovic . 2014 . Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat. Chilean Journal Research. 74(1):23-28.
  57. Wajid, A., A . Hussain , A. Ahmad, A. R. Goheer, M. Ibrahim, and M. Mussaddique . 2004. Effect of sowing date and plant population on biomass, grain yield components -ts of wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6:1003-1005.