Document Type : Research Paper


1 Salahaddin University/ Educatin College/Biology Department

2 Department of Biology/ College of Education/ Salahaddin University- Erbil


Crop yields and soil fertility are affected by plant-microorganism interactions. For this purpose, green house experiment was conducted in the University of Sa1ahaddin- Erbi1 from 2021 to 2022, to study the foliage application effect of three species of rhizobial bacteria on durum wheat Triticum durum L. cultivar (Akassad) quality and availability of soil nutrient contents. For this experiment, completley randomized design, (CRD) with three replicates was utilized. Rhizobial inoculation in durum wheat significantly affected leaf nitrogen (N), phosphoruse (P), Potassium (K), and iron (Fe) contents, leaf protein and carbohydrate contents, yield components and soi1 nutrient contents. While the application of Rhizibium sp. (Mung bean) significantly increased leaf N and protein contents, grain number.plant-1 and total nitrogen (Total N%) contents of soil over control. Whereas application of Rhizobium sp. (Phaseo1us), increased leaf K and Fe contents, weight of 1000 grains, available phosphorusus (Avail P) and available potassium (Avail K) soil contents, compared to control. However, application of Rhizobium sp. (Faba bean) significantly increased total N, avail P and avail K contents of soil. Over all, these rhizobia can be used for preparation of effective biofertilizer to enhance crop growth.


Main Subjects

  1. Maslennikova D, Nasyrova K, Chubukova O, Akimova E, Baymiev A, 2022. Effects of Rhizobium leguminosarum Thy2 on the growth and tolerance to cadmium stress of wheat plants. Life 12:1675.
  2. Hussein SY, Khursheed MQ. 2022. Some Biochemical and Biomass Responses of Wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] to Suboptimal Water Supply and Different Potassium Rates. Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology 14:61-75.
  3. Qadir S, Muhammad M, Khursheed M. 2022. Response of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L.) Genotypes to Drought stress at Early Growth Stage.
  4. Saheed SA, Darwesh DA. 2021. Combination Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Yield Components of two Wheat Species. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 33:93-102
  5. Saber TD, Khursheed MQ. 2020. Improvement of wheat quality and soil fertility by integrates chemical fertilizer with rhizobial bacteria. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 32:178-91
  6. Benaissa A. 2019. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria A review. Algerian Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5
  7. Qureshi MA, Iqbal MZ, RAHMAN SU, Anwar J, Tanveer MH, 2022. Relative potential of Rhizobium sp for improving the rice-wheat crop in the semi-arid regions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 11:216-24
  8. Ullah S, Qureshi MA, Ali MA, Mujeeb F, Yasin S. 2017. Comparative potential of Rhizobium species for the growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6:189-96
  9. Elia Y, Al-Sahaf N, Al-Khesraji T. 1987. Preliminary studies on Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. in tomato. Iraqi J. Agric. Sci.‘Zanco’ 5:233-44
  10. Etesami H, Alikhani HA, Jadidi M, Aliakbari A. 2009. Effect of superior IAA producing rhizobia on N, P, K uptake by wheat grown under greenhouse condition. World Appl. Sci. J 6:1629-33
  11. Ryan J, Estefon G, Rashid A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Bull. Fac. Sci 31:395-03
  12. Dalaly B, Al-Hakim S. 1987. Food analysis. Printed in Mosel University.
  13. Sadasivam S. 1996. Biochemical methods. New age international.
  14. Adnan M, Shah Z, Arif M, Khan MJ, Mian IA, et al. 2016. Impact of rhizobial inoculum and inorganic fertilizers on nutrients (NPK) availability and uptake in wheat crop. Canadian journal of soil science 96:169-76
  15. Qureshi MA, Shahzad H, Saeed MS, Ullah S, Ali MA, 2019. Relative potential of rhizobium species to enhance the growth and yield attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8:159-66
  16. Mehboob I, Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Tanveer A, Khalid M. 2012. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Soil & Environment 31
  17. Mehboob I, Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Tanveer A, Azam F. 2011. Growth promoting activities of different Rhizobium spp. in wheat. Pak. J. Bot 43:1643-50
  18. Mohanty P, Singh PK, Chakraborty D, Mishra S, Pattnaik R. 2021. Insight into the role of PGPR in sustainable agriculture and environment. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 5:667150
  19. Jiménez-Gómez A, Menéndez E, Flores-Félix JD, García-Fraile P, Mateos PF, Rivas R. Effective colonization of spinach root surface by Rhizobium. Proc. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Beneficial Plant-Microbe Interaction, 2016:109-22: Springer
  20. Jangir C, Singh D, Meena R, Yadav M. 2017. Effect of fertility levels and biofertilizers on physical and chemical properties of soil under blackgram (Vigna mungo L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6:223-8
  21. Anik MFA, Rahman MM, Rahman GM, Alam MK, Islam MS, Khatun MF. 2017. Organic amendments with chemical fertilizers improve soil fertility and microbial biomass in Rice-Rice-Rice triple crops cropping systems. Open Journal of Soil Science 7:87
  22. El-Azab ME, El-Dewiny CY. 2018. Effect of bio and mineral nitrogen fertilizer with different levels on growth, yield and quality of maize plants. J. of Innovations in Pharmaceutical and Biological Sci:2349-759