Document Type : Research Paper


Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako National Maize Research Center


At the study location of Bako National Maize Research Center, the experiment was carried out on BKL004 maize inbred line in 2019 to 2021 cropping season. The goal of this experiment was to determine an optimum plant population density and N rate on the BKL004 maize parental line. The experiment had two factors: five levels of plant population densities (44,444, 53,333, 66,666, 88,888 and 133,333 plants ha‑1) and four levels of nitrogen (111, 157, 203, and 249 kg ha‑1). The experiment included a total of twenty treatments (4*5) that were distributed in a factorial arrangement using an RCBD design. Each treatment was repeated three times. Different BKL004 maize parental line growth, phonological, and yield characteristics were gathered. Also, partial budget analysis were done to identify the most profitability treatment. Plant population density exerted a significant (p<0.05) effect on plant height, ear height, girth, days to 50% female flowering and seed yield. The tallest plant and ear height were recorded at plant population density of 133,333 plants ha‑1 with average plant and ear height of 146.50 cm and 61.32 cm respectively. The maximum girth (17.47) was obtained at 53, 333 plant population ha‑1. The highest plant population density extends the appearance of 50% days to silking by 91.72 days. The highest seed yield (3307 kg ha‑1) was recoded at plant population of 133,333 plants ha‑1, followed by seed yield recorded at plant population of 88,888 plants ha-1. N at the rate of 249 kg ha-1 with 133,333 plants ha‑1 was the most economically profitable than all the other treatments, followed by economic return obtained at 88,888 plants ha‑1 with 157 kg ha‑1 of N rate. However, as plant population affect the size of seed it may affect the seed germination and seedling vigor. Thus, 88.888 plants ha‑1 with 157 kg ha‑1 N rate was recommended for seed producer.


Main Subjects

  1. Ranum P, Pena-Rosas JP, Garcia-Casal MN, 2014. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences 105-112.
  2. Dowswell C.R., R.L. Paliwal and R.P. Cantrell. 1996. Maize in Third World. West View Press, Inc. Colorado, USA.
  3. Turrent-Fernández, A. and Serratos-Hernández, J.A., 2004. Context and background on maize and its wild relatives in Mexico. Commission for environmental cooperation of North America, maize and biodiversity: the effects of transgenic maize in Mexico.
  4. CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research), 2016. Research Programme on Maize, Why maize CIMMYT Web, Mexico
  5. Dawit A, Chilot Y, Adam B, Agajie T., 2014. Situation and Outlook of Maize in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa
  6. Ashraf U, Salim MN, Sher A, Sabir S, Khan A, 2016. Maize growth, yield formation and water-nitrogen usage in response to varied irrigation and nitrogen supply under semi-arid climate. Turk J Field Crops 21: 88-96.
  7. Tsedeke A, Bekele S, Abebe M, Dagne W, Yilma K, Kindie T, Menale K, Gezahegn B, Berhanu T, Tolera K 2015. Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia. Food Security 7:965-981.
  8. FOA, 2020. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations country Ethiopia. FOA UN.
  9. CSA (Central Statistical Agency), 2021. Area and Production for Major Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season), Volume I, Statistical Bulletin 590, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.
  10. FAOSTAT, 2019. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Crop harvested area, yield and production. pp. 28-30.
  11. Karaye A.K, Bb, S.B., Chamoc, A.M. and Rabiud, A.M., 2017. Influence of agronomic practices on crop production. International journal of science: Basic and Applied research, 31(1).
  12. Zhou B, Sun X., Wang D., Ding Z., Li C., Zhaoa W., 2019. Integrated agronomic practice increases maize grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency under various soil Fertility conditions. The Crop Journal 7 pp 527–538
  13. Aticho A, Elias E, and Diels J, 2011. Comparative analysis of soil nutrient balance at farm level: A case study in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 6 no. 4, pp. 259-266.
  14. Tena W. and Beyene S., 2011. Identification of growth limiting nutrient(s) in Alfisols: Soil physico-chemical properties, nutrient concentrations and biomass yield of maize, American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology, Vol. 1, no.1, pp. 23-35, 2011.
  15. Feyisa H, 2020. The Response of Maize Yield to Blended Nps Fertilizer Rates: Seasonal Rainfall Variation Affected Fertilizer Application Rates. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 28 (5): 401-408, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2020.401.408.
  16. Abebe Z. and Feyisa H., 2017. Effects of Nitrogen Rates and Time of Application on Yield of Maize: Rainfall Variability Influenced Time of N Application. International Journal of Agronomy, 1(1) pp. 1-10.
  17. Chandiposha M & Chivende F, 2014. Effect of ethephon and planting density on lodged plant percentage and crop yield in maize (Zea mays L.). African J of Plant Sci 8(2): 113-117.
  18. Zhang J, Dong S, Wang K, Hu C & Liu P (2006). Effects of shading on the growth, development and grain yield of summer maize. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 17(4): 657-662.
  19. Gou L, Huang J J, Zhang B, Li T, Sun R, Zhao M. 2007. Effects of population density on stalk lodging resistant mechanism and agronomic characteristics of maize. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 33, 1688–1695. (In Chinese).
  20. Novacek MJ, Mason SC, Galusha TD, Yaseen M, 2013. Twin rows minimally impact irrigated maize yield, morphology, and lodging. Agron J 105: 268- 276.
  21. Xue J, Zhao Y, Gou L, Shi Z, Yao M, Zhang W. 2016a. How high plant density of maize affects basal internode development and strength formation. Crop Science, 56, 3295–3306.
  22. Tetio-Kagho F, Gardner F P. 1988. Responses of maize to plant population density I. Canopy development, light relationships, and vegetative growth. Agronomy Journal, 80, 930–935.
  23. Rajcan I, Chandle K J. 2004. Red-far-red ratio of reflected light: A hypothesis of why early-season weed control is important in corn. Weed Science, 52, 774–778.
  24. Otegui ME, 1997. Kernel set and flower synchrony within the ear of maize: plant population effects. Crop Sci 37: 448-455.
  25. Ottman M, Welch L, 1989. Planting patterns and radiation interception, plant nutrient concentration, and yield in corn Agron J 81: 167-174.
  26. Amanullah KR, Khalil A, Shad K, 2009. Plant Density and Nitrogen Effects on Maize Phenology and Grain Yield. Journal of plant nutrition 32: 246-260.
  27. Shrestha, J., YaDav, D.N., Amgain, L.P. and SharMa, J.P., 2018. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on maize (Zea mays L.) phenology and grain yield. Current agriculture research Journal, 6(2), p.175.
  28. Karlen DL, Camp CR, 1985. Row spacing, plant population, and water management effects on corn in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Agron J 77: 393-398.
  29. Smith CS, Mock JJ, Crosbie TM (1982) Variability for morphological and physiological traits associated with barrenness and grain yield in maize population, Iowa Upright Leaf Synthetic. Crop Science 22: 828: 832.
  30. Westgate ME, Forcella F, Reicosky DD & Somsen J, 2017. Rapid canopy closure for maize production in the northern US Corn Belt: radiation-use efficiency and grain yield. Field Crops Res 49: 249–258.
  31. Taressa B, Dabale M, Negasa G, Abebe Z, 2020. The Effect of Plant Population and Nitrogen Rates on Yield and Seed Quality of CML-395 x CML-202 Female Basic Seed for Production of BH-661 and BH-546 Hybrid Maize Seed at Bako, Western Ethiopia. Advanced Journal of Seed Science and Technology, Vol. 6 (1), pp. 168-175.
  32. Abd-Alkream HA, Abduallih FS, Rasha A AA (2018). The Effect of Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Inbred Lines and Hybrids of Corn (Zea mays L.). J. Univ. Babylon Pure Appl. Sci. 26, 245–253.
  33. Abuzar M R, Sadozai GU, Baloch MS, Baloch AA, Shah IH (2011). Effect of Plant Population Densities on Yield of Maize. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 21, 692–695.