Document Type : Review Paper


College of Agriculture, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


This study aims to investigate the effect of biological inoculation with Azotobacter chrococcum and Glomus mosseae on the growth and yield of Zea mays L., the variety of Baghdad 3 under different levels of water stress. A field experiment was carried out in the fall season of 2020 in a private farm in the Diwaniyah Governorate-Afak district. According to the Randomized Complete Block Design R.C.B.D, the experiment was designed with three replications, and the treatment was distributed randomly. Three levels of irrigation were used in the experiment (I4 irrigation every four days, I7 irrigation every seven days,  I10 irrigation every ten days) and the levels of inoculation (B1 inoculation with A-chrococcum and B0 not inoculating with bacteria) and ( F1 inoculating with G-mosseae and F0 non-inoculation) and ( B1F1 interaction between fungus and bacteria). The means were compared using the L.S.D. Test at a 5% significance level. The results present that the treatments inoculated with fungi or bacteria or both, and for a seven-day irrigation period, significantly increased the values ​​of the traits (plant height, dry weight of the vegetative part, length of corn cob, protein percentage, soil content of available iron during the flowering and end of season periods). They had the highest values ​​ 358, 85.71, 25.63, 12.23, 0.5423, and 0.4873 cm plant-1, respectively, compared to the treatments (control + irrigation every ten days) as they resulted in 165, 32.87, 9.07, 6.75, 0.3133, and 0.2823 cm plant-1, respectively.


[1]     Rhodes, J. D. 1982. Cation exchange capacity. P . 149-157 . in A-L. page (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis. Agron. No. 9 part 2: chemical and mineralogical properties. Am. Soc. Agron ., Madison, WI, U.S.A.
[2]     Al-Taweel, L. S. J., and M. M. Abo-Tabikh. (, 2019). Effect of humic acid, urea, and ammonium sulfate on the growth and yield of Zea. Mays L. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture Vol. (47), Supplement II, 2019 Proceedings of the 3rd International Agri. The conference, College of Agri. And Forestry, Univ. of Mosul and College of Agri. Engineering Sciences, Univ. of Duhok 2-3 October 2019.
[3]     Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, 2012, Local Agricultural Statistics Yearbook (31), Khartoum, Sudan.
[4]     Mishra , D .J .; S. Rajvir ;U .K. Mishra and S. Kumar(2013).Role of biofertilizer in organic agriculture .R.J.of Recent Sciences.2:39-41.
[5]     Abd EL-Fattah,Dalia A.; Wedad E.Eweda ; Mona S . Zayed and Mosaad K.Hassane(2013).Effect of carrier materials, sterilization method, and storage temperature on survival and biological activities of Azotobacter chrococcum inoculant.Annals of Agricultural Science.58(2).111-118.
[6]     Borie, F ., R .Rubio and Morales, A.2008.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation. J. Soil Sci.Plant Nutr.,8(2):9-18.
[7]     Smith, S. E., and Read, D.J.(2008). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis,3rd Ed; Academic Press, London:787.
[8]     Al-Aboudi, Hadi Muhammad Karim and Raisan Karim Shati, 2010. The role of irrigation scheduling and planting depth in the growth and yield of yellow corn. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41 (6), 23-39-
[9]     Hussein M. Khaeim; Bushra A. Jaber; Mahmood A. Ali. (2019). Winter Wheat Genotypes Response to Different Water Quality. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND STATISTICAL SCIENCES. Vol 15, no. 2: ISSN:0973-1930. eISSN-09763392.
[10]  Amin, Muhammad Mortada, 2010. The effect of different nitrogen types on the growth, productivity, and quality of yellow corn. The Journal of the Saudi Society for Agricultural Sciences - King Saud University -1 (2): 84-106.
[11]  Bashan-Y.; Holguin, G.; Ferrera – Cerrato , R. (1996). Interaction between plants and beneficial microorganisms II. Associative rhizosphere bacterial Terra (Mexico). 14(2): 195-210.
[12]  Cresser, M. and J. Parsons.1979. Sulphuric, perchloric acid, and digestion changes in maize seedlings under osmotic stress.Radar. Povrt. J. 49.
[13]  Ahmed, Sh. A., and O. Q. Abd Ulameer. 2014. Effect of water stress and potassium fertilization on some growth treats of sunflower. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 45(7) : 708-720 .
[14]  Mclean, E.O.1982. Soil P.H. and Lime requirement. P. 199-224. in A.L. page (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2. chemical and microbiological properties. Am. Soc Agron. Madison. W.I. U.S.A.  
[15]  Richards, L . A. 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of  Saline and alkali soils. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handbook 60. Washington, D.C.
[16]  Mohammad zadeh, A., N. Majnoonhoseini, H. Moghaddam and M. Akbari. 2011. The effect of various water stress and nitrogen levels on the yield and yield components in red beans genotype. J. Agric. Sci. Iran. 43:29-38.
[17]  Walkley. A . 1947. Acritical examination of arapid method of determining organic carbon in Soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and organic Soil con – stiuents. Soil Sci . 63: 251 – 263.
[18]  F A O .1974. The  . the Euphrates pilot irrigation project. Methods of Soil analysis, Gadeb Soil Laboratory (A Laboratory Manual). Food and Agriculture organization, Roma. Italy
[19]  Bremner , J.M., and C.S. Mulvaney . 1982. Nitrogen total. P. 595 – 624. In A . L . page (ed). Methods of Soil analysis, Agron, No. 9. part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, 2nd ed. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison. W.I. U.S.A. 
[20]  Micic, D. and Vancetovic, J. (2012) . Morpho-Physiological
[21]  Williams , C.H., and A. Steinbergs.1959. Soil Sulphur  fractions as chemical indices of available sulfur in some Australian Soils. Aust .J. Agric. Res . 10: 340 _ 352.
[22]  Mahdi,S.S.;Hassan,G.I.;Samoon,S.A.;Rather,H.A.Dar,S.A.and Zehra,B.2010.Bio-fertilizers in organic agriculture.Journal of Phytology.2(10):42-54.
[23]  Mohammad zadeh, A., N. Majnoonhoseini, H. Moghaddam and M. Akbari. 2011. The effect of various water stress and nitrogen levels on the yield and yield components in red beans genotype. J. Agric. Sci. Iran. 43:29-38.
[24]  Sultana, U.,Desai, S.,& Reddy,G.2016.Successful colonization of roots and plant growth promotion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) by seed treatment with Pseudomonas putida and Azotobacter chrococcum.WJ Microbiol.3.043-049.
[25]  Al-Baraki, Ghanem Bahloul Nouni, and Baha Abdul-Jabbar Abdul-Hamid Al-Hadithi. (2016). The effect of adding the bacterial vaccine Paeni bacillus polymyxa and the fungal Glomus mosseae and the methods of addition on the growth and yield of yellow corn (Zea mays L.) Al-Muthanna Journal of Agricultural Sciences The Journal: 4 Issue: 2 2016.
[26]  Abd EL-Gany, Bouthaina.F.; A.M.Arafa, Rawhide. ;Tomader , EL Rahmany and Mona .Morsy, EL-Shazly2010.Effect of some soil Microorganisms on soil properties and Wheat production under north, Sinai, conditions.Journal, Applied Sciences Research.4(5):559-579.
[27]  Abbas, c. a . , Alaa. s. P., Israa . a . a . - And Majid. K. M . 2004. The effect of bacterial pollination, seeding quantity, and spraying with yeast powder on growth and yield of the mungose plant. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Volume 35 Issue (1): 76-69.
[28]  Ali Al-Husseni, A.K., Sagban Alabadi, L.A., Khaeim, H.M., Al-Jutheri, H.W. Chemical and Mineralogical Nature of the Sediments of Sawa Lake in Muthanna Governorate, Southwestern Iraq. I.O.P. Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 735(1), 012054.
[29]  Al-Husseini, Mohammed Ajami Salman. 2020. The effect of biological fertilization and potassium fertilizer on growth and yield of yellow corn Zea mays L. and copper, iron, and zinc compounds. Master Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Al-Qadisiyah University.
[30]  Al-Hadithi, Bahaa Abdul-Jabbar, Hussein Arnous Farag 2012. The role of Azotobacter chroococum and Trichoderma harzianum in the nitrogen readiness of barley Hordeum vulgare. Kufa Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume (4), Issue (2), 174-157.
[31]  Tamimi, raised Hisham Mahdi. 2017. Response of some synthetic varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) to mineral, organic and biological fertilizers. Master Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Baghdad University.
[32]  Hassan, Zainab Kazem (2011). Isolation and diagnosis of Azospirillum lipoferum and Bacillus polymyxa from some soils in southern Iraq and their role in biological fertilization of yellow corn plants (Zea mays L.), Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.
[33]  Al-Karkhi, Maytham Abbas (2017). The role of biological fertilization in reducing water stress of the growth traits of Vigna radiate L. Master Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture. Al-Qadisiyah University.
[34]  [Adeleke, A. 2010. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Glomalin Production. MSc Thesis Soil Science Department. The University of Askatchewan:39-49.
[35]  Al-Saadi, Abbas Jassim Hussein; Alwan, Abd Aoun Hashem; Hassan, Rasha Hamid (2012). The effect of eutrophication and proline on the concentration of some macronutrients. Vigna radiates L. Kufa Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4. 354-346, (2).
[36]  Al-Zahidi, Walid Fuleih 2015, The effect of mineral and bio-nitrogen fertilization on iron readiness in some yellow corn Ph.D. thesis genotypes - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad.
[37]  Khaeim, H.M., Jeber, B.A., Aljawasim, B.D., Al-Khaikani, S.A.M., Mohsen, A.A. Tillers patterns of bread wheat and grain yield productivity under abiotic stress. Plant Archives, 2020, 20(2), pp. 7967–7970.