Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Plant Production, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.


The study aimed to investigate the effect of different densities of M.persicae and T. tabaci on the predatory ability of the predator O. albidipennis and determine the preference for one of the two prey, in addition to assessing the in vitro predator's efficiency in reducing the number of aphids on the carrot plant. The results indicated that the rates of predated adult and nymph thrips were significantly higher than that of predated aphids. The highest rate of predation for nymphs and adults thrips was 33.2 and 25 preys per day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container, while the highest rate of predation of adults and nymphs of aphids was 19 and 13.2prey/day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container. The food preference experiment showed that the adults of the predator O. albidipennis feed on the immature stages thrips and aphids when introduced together and have no clear preference for one of the prey. The results of evaluating the efficiency of predator adults on reducing different densities of aphids showed that the predator was effectively able to reduce the population increase of aphids when the insect densities were 10, 20 or 30 insect. however, the predator was not effective when introduced to aphids at starting density of 40, no significant difference was found due to predator presence or absence as the aphids population density were 118.4 and 135.2 insects/cage after four days, respectively.


Main Subjects

[1]     Blackman, R. L., and Eastop, V. F. (2008). Aphids on the world's herbaceous plants and shrubs, 2 volume set. John Wiley and Sons.
[2]     Van Emden, H. F., and Harrington, R. (Eds.). (2017). Aphids as crop pests. Cabi.
[3]     Diaz-Montano, J., Fuchs, M., Nault, B. A., Fail, J., and Shelton, A. M. (2011). Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(1), 1-13.‏
[4]     Stuart, R. R., GAO, Y. L., and LEI, Z. R. (2011). Thrips: pests of concern to China and the United States. Agricultural Sciences in China, 10(6), 867-892.‏
[5]     Lewis, T. 1997.Thrips as Crop Pests. University Press.Cambridage, 740 PP.
[6]     Silva, A. X., Jander, G., Samaniego, H., Ramsey, J. S., and Figueroa, C. C. (2012). Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: a transcriptomic survey. PloS one, 7(6), e36366.‏
[7]     Nazemi, A., Khajehali, J., and Van Leeuwen, T. (2016). Incidence and characterization of resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in Isfahan, Iran. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 129, 28-35.‏
[8]     Butler, C. D., and O’Neil, R. J. (2008). Voracity and prey preference of insidious flower bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for immature stages of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and soybean thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Environmental Entomology, 37(4), 964–972.
[9]     Sengonca, C., Ahmadi, K., and Blaeser, P. (2008). Biological characteristics of Orius similis Zheng (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae) by feeding on different aphid species as prey. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 115(1), 32-38.‏
[10]  Yoo, H. J. S., and O’Neil, R. J. (2009). Temporal relationships between the generalist predator, Orius insidiosus, and its two major prey in soybean. Biological Control, 48(2), 168-180.
[11]  Wang, S., Michaud, J. P., Tan, X. L., and Zhang, F. (2014). Comparative suitability of aphids, thrips and mites as prey for the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). European Journal of Entomology, 111(2), 221-226.
[12]  Banihashemi, A. S., Seraj, A. A., Yarahmadi, F., and Rajabpour, A. (2017). Effect of host plants on predation, prey preference and switching behaviour of Orius albidipennis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus turkestani. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 37(3), 176–182.
[13]  Lattin, J. D. (1999). Bionomics of the Anthocoridae. Annual Review of Entomology, 44(1), 207-231.‏
[14]  Bouagga, S., Urbaneja, A., Rambla, J. L., Granell, A., and Pérez-Hedo, M. (2018). Orius laevigatus strengthens its role as a biological control agent by inducing plant defenses. Journal of Pest Science, 91(1), 55–64.
[15]  Messelink, G. J., Bloemhard, C. M. J., Sabelis, M. W., and Janssen, A. (2013). Biological control of aphids in the presence of thrips and their enemies. BioControl, 58(1), 45–55.
[16]  Fathi, S. A. A., Asghari, A., and Sedghi, M. (2008). Interaction of Aeolothrips intermedius and Orius niger in controlling Thrips tabaci on potato. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(5), 521–525.
[17]  Fathi, S. A. A., and Nouri-Ganbalani, G. (2009). Prey preference of Orius niger (Wolf.) and O. minutus (L.) from Thrips tabaci (Lind.) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch.). Journal of Entomology, Vol. 6, pp. 42–48.
[18]  Rajabpour, A., Seraj, A. A., Allahyari, H., and Shishehbor, P. (2011). Evaluation of Orius laevigatus fiber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) for biological control of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse cucumber in South of Iran. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(5), 457-467.‏
[19]  Salehi, F., Baniameri, V., Sahragard, A., and Hajizadeh, J. (2011). Investigation on prey preference and switching behavior of the predatory bug, Orius niger Wolff under laboratory conditions (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Munis Entomol. Zool, 6, 425-432.
[20]  Al-Kherb, W. A. (2014). Biological characteristics of Orius albidipennis (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) reared on insect and mite preys. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(2), 110-118.‏
[21]  Bonte, J., De Hauwere, L., Conlong, D., and De Clercq, P. (2015). Predation capacity, development and reproduction of the southern African flower bugs Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on various prey. Biological Control, 86, 52–59.
[22]  Hamed, Dawood Salman (2014). An ecological and biological study of onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different plant species with reference to its biological and chemical control in province of Basrah. Master Thesis. University of Basrah, Faculty of Agriculture. P 98.
[23]  Liu, P., Jia, W., Zheng, X., Zhang, L., Sangbaramou, R., Tan, S., and Shi, W. (2018). Predation functional response and life table parameters of Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) feeding on Megalurothrips usitatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Florida Entomologist, 101(2), 254-259.‏
[24]  Rutledge, C. E., O” Neil, R. J., Fox, T. B., and Landis, D. A. (2004). Soybean aphid predators and their use in integrated pest management. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97(2), 240–248.
[25]  Rutledge, C. E., and O’Neil, R. J. (2005). Orius insidiosus (Say) as a predator of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Biological Control, 33(1), 56-64.‏
[26]  Al-Mohammadi, Fadel Musleh (2009). Agricultural experiments - design and analysis. Amman (Jordan): Al-Yazouri Scientific House for Publication and Distribution. P 518.
[27]  Chow, A., Chau, A., and Heinz, K. M. (2008). Compatibility of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with Amblyseius (Iphiseius) degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse roses. Biological Control, 44(2), 259-270.‏
[28]  Funderburk, J. (2009). Management of the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in fruiting vegetables. Florida Entomologist, 92(1), 1-6.‏
[29]  Tommasini, M. G., Van Lenteren, J. C., and Burgio, G. (2004). Biological traits and predation capacity of four Orius species on two prey species.‏ Bull. Insectol. 57, 79–93.
[30]  Kohno, K., and Kashio, T. (1998). Development and prey consumption of Orius sauteri (Poppius) and O. minutus (L.)(Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) fed on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Applied entomology and zoology, 33(2), 227-230.‏
[31]  Rondon, S. I., Cantliffe, D. J., and Price, J. F. (2004). The feeding behavior of the bigeyed bug, minute pirate bug, and pink spotted lady beetle relative to main strawberry pests. Environmental entomology, 33(4): 1014-1019.‏
[32]  Mendes, S. M., Bueno, V. H., Argolo, V. M., and Silveira, L. C. P. (2002). Type of prey influences biology and consumption rate of Orius insidiosus (Say)(Hemiptera, Anthocoridae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 46(1), 99-103.‏
[33]  Jaworski, C. C., Bompard, A., Genies, L., Amiens-Desneux, E., and Desneux, N. (2013). Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests. PLoS One, 8(12), e82231.‏
[34]  Wittmann, E. J., and Leather, S. R. (1997). Compatibility of Orius laevigatus Fieber (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with Neoseiulus Amblyseius cucumeris Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Iphiseius Amblyseius) degenerans Berlese (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in the biocontrol of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Experimental and applied acarology, 21(8), 523-538.‏
[35]  Harwood, J. D., Desneux, N., Yoo, H. J. S., Rowley, D. L., Greenstone, M. H., Obrycki, J. J., and O′ NEIL, R. J. (2007). Tracking the role of alternative prey in soybean aphid predation by Orius insidiosus: a molecular approach. Molecular Ecology, 16(20), 4390-4400.
[36]  Butler, C. D., and O’Neil, R. J. (2007). Life history characteristics of Orius insidiosus (Say) fed diets of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura and soybean thrips, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach). Biological control, 40(3), 339-346.‏
[37]  Butler, C. D., and O’neil, R. J. (2006). Defensive response of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to predation by insidious flower bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99(2), 317-320.‏
[38]  Desneux, N., and O'neil, R. J. (2008). Potential of an alternative prey to disrupt predation of the generalist predator, Orius insidiosus, on the pest aphid, Aphis glycines, via short-term indirect interactions. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 98(6), 631-639.
[39]  Al-Husseinawi, Khaled Jaber Abdul-Razzaq (2012). A taxonomic and ecological study of some types of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with reference to the predatory efficiency of two ladybirds species in province of  Basrah. Master Thesis. University of Basrah, faculty of Agriculture. P 129
[40]  Desneux, N., O’neil, R. J., and Yoo, H. J. S. (2006). Suppression of population growth of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, by predators: the identification of a key predator and the effects of prey dispersion, predator abundance, and temperature. Environmental Entomology, 35(5), 1342-1349.‏