Volume 10, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2020, Page 304-441


Studying Some The Functional Properties of Tamarind Tamarindus indica L. Mucilage

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 304-307
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167474

The present study aimed to extract the mucilage from Tamarind Tamarindus indica L and studying some the functional properties . The values of solubility , water binding capacity and viscosity for tamarind seed mucilage were:  87.4 , 17.54 and 13.7 respectively . The tamarind seed mucilage showed varied oil binding capacity from 0.42- 0.73 ( g oil / g dry mucilage ) due to the type of oil used . The results showed a higher emulsification stability from tamarind seed mucilage. This results indicated the ability of using tamarind seed mucilage as stabilizer and emulsifier in food industry .

Comparison Between Groundwater Quality at North East and South West of Erbil Governorate for Irrigation Using Some Global Systems and Principal Component Analysis

Dania Mohammed Danish Aladdin Sajadi; Akram Othman Esmail

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 308-324
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167475

This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
 

The Effects of Biological and Chemical Agents on the Management of Main Pests in Tomato Plant

Sanaa S. Abbas; Alaa J. Subaih; Yahya A. Saleh

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 325-334
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167476

This laboratory study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of two biological agents Beauveria bassiana (Bals) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Kursaki) and four chemical pesticides Levo 2.4 SL, Aster 20 SL, Difuse 450 SC, and Matrixine Plus EC on four important main pests that infect tomato plants. The pests studied were whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Meyrick Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Sulzer Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Koch Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetraanychidae). The results show that the pesticide Matrixine Plus recorded the highest average of mortality of both larval and adult stages of all four pests. The average of mortality for adults and larvae of whitefly were 96.67% and 86.67% respectively. The average of mortality for adults and larvae of Meyrick was 93.33% for both stages, while the percentages for adults and larvae of Sulzer and Kotch were 96.67% respectively after seven days of exposure. The lowest averages of mortality were recorded for Antario on whitefly adults and for Difuse on whitefly (both (16.67%). Difuse caused the lowest average of mortality (26.67%) on Meyrick adults, whereas Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 20% on Meyrick larvae. The results show also that Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 23.33% on adults and 16.67% on larvae. Similarly, Difuse was recorded the lowest average of 20% on adults while Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 26.67% on larvae after one day of treatment.

MEASURING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF HONEY PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE SEASON 2018-2019

Sura Sa’il Abd; Muna Abdukkadir Ahmad; Zwayid Fathi Abd

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 335-342
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167477

This study aimed at identifying the most important factors affecting bee honey production, by performing a comparative study for the economic efficiency and the technical efficiency, data were obtained from field sources in light of a random sample constituted a percentage of 5% taken from honey producers from 51 apiaries at the season of 2018- 2019. The research, in estimating economic efficiency and dividing its components into technical and allocative efficiencies, adopted the data envelopment analysis using the model of entry orientation in light of fixed and variable returns in checking the technical efficiency, and in light of variable capacity return  in checking allocative efficiency and cost efficiency, where we note that technical efficiency varied between (0.1-1) with an average of 27%, i.e. the sample is capable of increasing its production by 73% to reach the optimal volume, whereas we note that 96.3% of beekeepers are working with increasing capacity return. The technical efficiency, in light of the variation in capacity return, has varied between 0.5 minimum and 1 maximum with an average of 0.60, and that the apiaries which fell on the possible production curve were 12%. The economic efficiency on the other hand, reached an average of 0.46 and that means the bee breeding farms could achieve the same production level in light of costs reduction of 54%, i.e. capable of producing the current amount using only 46% of the economic resources, and this is attributed to the inadequacy of the allocative efficiency and the improper use of resources. The study recommended the use of amounts that realize the economic efficiency and, the redistribution of resources in a way that guaranties achieving the same level of production or more in light of costs reduction.

Study The GCA and SCA Effects of Five Inbred Lines of Maize According to Half Diallel Mating System

Wajeeha Abed Hassan; Banan Hassan Hadi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 343-348
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167496

Half diallel crossing among five inbred lines of maize was  performed to estimate the combining ability effects and some genetic parameters. The crosses differed significantly for all the studied traits. Also, GCA and SCA mean squares were significant. The ratio GCA/SCA exhibited values under one indicating that non-additive gene action mainly controls the expression of all the studied traits. Inbred line 4 contributed significantly to the good performance of the hybrids for grain yield traits. Also, inbred line 5 exhibited desirable GCA effects for five traits and it seems to be promising. The crosses 2x4, 1x4 and 3x5 own highest mean and SCA effects for grain yield.

GLIMPSE OF FISH AS PERISHABLE STAPLE

AYELOJA Ayodeji Ahmed

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 349-375
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167497

Glimpse of fish as perishable staple was reviewed. Fish is an important animal protein as it supplies good quality protein, vitamins and minerals. It is however highly perishable and spoils quickly, bad fish handling after harvesting, inadequate storage and processing facilities also contributes to fish spoilage in developing countries thus causing a lacuna between fish demand and supply, thus posing a great challenge to food security. Processing of fish facilitates its maximal use as for value-added fish products. Smoking is the preservation method most adopted in many developing countries to extend fish shelf life. Fish post-harvest loss come in different faces including: physical loss, quality loss and market forces loss all of which will lead to reduction in fish shelf life. Antimicrobial properties of plant extracts and proper packaging can extend fish shelf life. There in need to encourage women participation in fisheries subsector as their active role is essential to fighting poverty and ensuring food security within many households.

Theoretical Study to Choose The Appropriate Pumps To Solve The Problem of Low Water Levels of The Iraqi Rivers With The Design of A Floating Pumping Station

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 377-384
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167498

A study was prepared to select the appropriate pumps for pump stations in order to predict the decrease in the level of Iraq's rivers in general and problems in the pumping stations as a result of this decrease in addition the study was prepared to address the problems in the water pumping projects (pumping stations) in 2019 at the University of Baghdad, the study can be applied for all central and subsidiary water pumping projects spread throughout the provinces, note that the study includes the ( introduction of basic data such as the rise of the river level, dimension the location of the pump for the river, the required height for pumping water and the amount of water required to pump (m3/h), the diameter of the pipes to be used, connecting accessories, the number of entrances and exits of the system, check valves etc..). The study also includes the design of a floating pumping station to address the problem and the study also aims to reduce the financial cost in terms of the use of ideal pump set (motor + pump) for river level (upper and lower ) and thus reduce the engine horsepower, i.e. reducing the power of the engine required for operation, in addition to reducing the cost to buy expensive pumps with high horsepower, reducing the sizes and types of pipes used, as well as reducing the connecting accessories, and thus we have solved technical and economic problems at the same time.

Measurement of Some Citrus Species Content From Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri; Raed S. Suhail; Zahraa S. Mahdi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 385-388
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167499

The aim of this study was to measure content of total flavonoids for most types of citrus cultivated in Iraq as well as the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant was highest in orange peels [5129] micromole Fe⁺² / gm dry matter. Citrus peels and seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants that can be used both in the medical and commercial fields .  

EVALUATION OF HETEROCLARIAS QUALITY WITH INCREASED STORAGE TIME USING QUALITY INDEX METHOD (QIM)

Ayeloja Ayodeji Ahmed; Jimoh Wasiu Adeyemi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 389-393
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167500

The quality of Heteroclarias with increased storage time using Quality Index Method (QIM) was evaluated. 140 live samples of Heteroclarias (average weight 230 + 7g) were used for the study. QIM was used to evaluate the key parameters in fish deterioration, twenty semi-trained assessors was used for the sensory evaluation. Data obtained were subjected to appropriate statistical tools using SPSS 16.0 version. Quality Index (QI) of Heteroclarias increases with increased post slaughter time when the fish was left at ambient temperatures (27 + 3°C) indicating decrease in fish quality with time. High correlation of (r=0.993) with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.986) was obtained indicating that 98.6% of the variation in post slaughter time was explained by quality attributes; the regression equation was significant F(9, 130)=1080 (p<0.0001) indicating that it could be used for prediction and estimation of fish quality, the QI used in this study is therefore recommended to be used by relevant agencies for predicting fish quality.
Practical Applications :Fish is highly perishable despite its nutritional value, consumers becoming increasingly interested in the quality of fish they consume and the physical attributes of the fish is very vital for on the spot assessment of fish quality. This study provide quality index that could be used for prediction and estimation of fish quality using sensory evaluation.

OVERALL WATER LOSSES DURING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN ARID AREA:CASE OF TOUGGOURT - ALGERIA

GHERIANI Sofiane; MEZA Noureddine; BOUTOUTAOU Djamel

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 394-406
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167501

In recent years, the development of agriculture in Algeria Southeast grew rapidly, which increased demand for agricultural products. Since this region has difficult agro-climatic conditions, irrigation seems to be a necessary factor to ensure optimal development and higher agricultural production. Like many irrigation techniques that are widely used, the performance of sprinkler irrigation is significantly affected by these conditions (mainly evaporation) which cause colossal water losses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through the experimental approach, the global losses of water caused by evaporation and wind drift on two irrigated surfaces in the arid zone of Touggourt. Here we propose adequate predictive equations and explore the effect of irrigated area on overall water loss values. These are measured on two blocks (A and B) the rain gauge method. Block A contains four lateral lines while Block B has only two. For both, each lateral line has four sprinklers. The results showed that the overall water losses of block A are about 24.13 to 50.46%, while those of Block B range from 29.52 to 49.5 %.Two obtained models are adopted for both blocks which can be useful tools for determining overall water losses in environmental conditions (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed).Noting that when the irrigated area was larger, the water losses will be lass.

Effect of Substitution of Vicia Sativa Raw and Treated Seeds as A substitute for Soybean Meal on Productive Performance of Broiler Chickens

Shehab Mohamad Hamid; Salim Thanon Younis; Mahmood Ahmed Mohammad

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 408-414
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167502

The study was carried out using 405 chicks with a one-day-old, type Rose 308. The birds were randomly distributed to nine experimental treatments, with three replicates per treatment (15 birds/replicate). The birds were fed ad libitum during the 42-day trial period, 9 diets were used for study in the starter and 9 diets in the finisher period, as protein source used the Vetch 12.5% and 25% as an alternative to soybean meal, Vetch was treated by soaking in water or acetic acid (1% concentration) or by adding activated charcoal 50 gm / 100 kg diets. The results of the 21-day starter level showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) for live body weight, weight gain, consumed feed, and feed conversion ratio between control treatment and Vetch treatments 12.5% and 25% soaked water, acid and activated charcoal. While there were no significant differences in Mortality% in the period 21 days, in the finisher period (22-42 days), the results showed significant differences (P <0.05) between control treatment, Vetch seed and Vetch seeds treatments for body weight, weight gain, consumed feed and feed conversion ratio, Also, there was no significant difference between treatments for mortality% in this period.

Study The Thermal Properties of The Soil Under Systems Irrigation and Mulching Different

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167503

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, with the aim of studying thermal properties under different irrigation and mulching systems. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The thermal properties were estimated using equations (thermal conductivity, heat flow, volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusion), the results showed the following:

It is noticed that superiority of the treatment of mulching with black nylon at the beginning and end of the season by obtaining the highest thermal conductivity of the soil, followed by the treatment of straw and fronds compared to the treatment without mulching, as it reached at the beginning of the season 0.830, 0.769, and 0.752 W∙m−1∙K respectively, and reached at the end of the season 0.772, 0.813, and 0.834 W∙m−1∙K respectively, while the thermal conductivity of the control was 0.665, 0.746 W∙m−1∙K at the beginning and end of the season respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in the thermal conductivity values at the beginning and the end of the season, reaching 0.733 and 0.775 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the beginning of the season and 0.785 and 0.797 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the end of the season.
The black nylon mulch treatment outperformed the rest of the treatments at the beginning of the season, followed by the non-mulched treatment, then the frond mulching and straw mulching treatment by obtaining the highest heat flux rate of 2.96, 3.30, 4.47 and 6.80 W/m2, respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method by obtaining the highest heat flux at the beginning of the season, reaching 5.99, and 2.77 W/m2, respectively, but the opposite happened at the end of the season where the furrow irrigation method outperformed the basin irrigation method, reaching 3.99, and 3.85 W/ m2 respectively.
The mulching treatment with black nylon exceeded by obtaining the highest values of volumetric heat capacity, then followed by the treatment of mulching with straw and fronds, and then treatment without mulching at the beginning and end of the growing season, reaching 1.61, 1.53, 1.49, and 1.39 MJ / m3 respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.52, 1.54, 1.54 and 1.63 respectively at the end of the season.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in that it obtained the highest values of volumetric heat capacity which were 1.48 and 1.53 MJ / m3.K respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.57 and 1.54 MJ / m3.K respectively at the end of the season.
The treatment of mulching with black nylon outperformed by obtaining the highest value of thermal diffusivity, followed by the treatment of mulching with fronds and straw, compared to a treatment without mulching at the beginning of the season, which amounted to 5.18x10-7, 5.06x10-7, 5.01x10-7, and 4.79x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.
The basin irrigation method achieved the highest rate of thermal diffusivity compared with the furrow irrigation method at the beginning of the growing season, reaching 5.09 x10-7, and 4.94x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.

Study The Effect of Soil Mulching and Irrigation Systems on Some Physical Properties of The Soil and Growth and Yield of Maize

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 426-441
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167504

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, the soil texture was Sandy loam, to study the effect of types of mulching and irrigation systems on some physical properties of soil, growth and yield of maize. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The physical properties of the study treatments were measured before planting, mid-season and at the end of the season, which included bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil temperature. The growth characters of the maize were measured at 100% flowering, which include plant height, leaf area, weight of 500 grains, total yield, and water use efficiency. The most important results obtained can be summarized as follows:

The bulk density values at the beginning of the season were not significantly affected by soil mulching, as the values of bulk density rates were 1.23, 1.23, 1.23 μg m-3 for control, frond, and black nylon mulching compared to their pre-planting values 1.23 μg m-3. Whereas, there were significant differences in the mid-season in the bulk density values of the control treatment, as they reached 1.24 μg m-3. While the mulching of fronds and black nylon did not significantly affect the values of bulk density in the middle of the season compared with the values before planting. While it is evident that there was a significant effect mulching on the values of the bulk density of the control, frond, and black nylon mulching at the end of the season, which amounted to 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26 μg m-3, respectively, compared to their values before planting. Also, it is noticed that the values of the bulk density rates of straw mulching treatment decreased at the beginning, middle and end of the season, as the values were 1.21, 1.22, and 1.22 μg m-3, respectively, compared with their value before planting.
There was no significant effect of the two irrigation methods on the bulk density values at the beginning, middle and end of the season compared with the bulk density values before planting.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on water conductivity, as the values of the water conductivity decreased compared to their values before planting, and became 2.68 x 10-3, 2.69 x 10-3, and 2.73 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for control, fronds, and nylon, respectively. While the treatment of straw mulching, the water conductivity values increased at the end of the season compared to their values before planting.
The presence of the effect of the irrigation method on water conductivity, and led to a decrease in the values of the water conductivity compared to its values before planting, as it reached 2.76 x10-3 - 2.75 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for the two irrigation treatments in basin and furrow, respectively.
A slight decrease in the temperature in the middle of the season during the months of September and October, and the decline continued until the end of the season in the month of November. The highest temperatures were recorded for the treatment mulched with black nylon and control, followed by the palm fronds and the lowest temperature for the straw mulch treatment. The irrigation method did not affect soil temperature during the crop growth stages.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on plant height, the mean values of plant height were 184.05, 169.25, 149.6, 177.5 cm for control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the absence of a significant effect of the irrigation method on plant height, the averages of the two methods of irrigation of basins and furrows were 169.95 and 170.25 cm, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the leaf area (4205, 5381, 4385, 3564 cm2 for straw, frond, control, and nylon mulching respectively. as well as, the absence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the leaf area.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the grain yield, reaching 5260, 4028, 3520, and 4625 kg ha-1 for control, straw, fronds, and nylon mulching, respectively. As well as significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the grain yield, reaching 4014,4703 kg ha-1 for the treatment of irrigation of basins and furrows, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for weight of 500 grains (91.1, 103.8, 113.9, 99.8 gm for the control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the presence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the weight of 500 grains, which amounted to 105.4 98.8 gm for irrigation with basins and furrows respectively.
Mulching soil surface with straw and fronds increased water use efficiency compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.104, 0.849, and 0.708 kg m-3, respectively. There were also no significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the water use efficiency.