Volume 12, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2022


Hydrochemistry and Nitrate Pollution of Groundwater in the Alluvial Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Algeria)

Yamina Sayeh; Semar Ahcène; Hakim Bachir

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132235.1018

The study carried out in the eastern Mitidja (Algeria) using groundwater chemistry data is aimed at clarifying the geochemical behavior of the alluvial groundwater as well as assessing the degree of nitrate contamination. The aquifer is characterized by a heterogeneous lithology marked by alternating levels of alluvium, gravel, sand and clay. The chemical facies encountered are: Na - Cl type with 52.7%, Mixed Ca - Mg - Cl type with 29.1%, Mixed Ca - Na - HCO3 type with 9.1% and Ca – HCO3 type with 9.1%. The interpretation of the analytical data shows that water mineralization is controlled by many ions Na+, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+ and HCO3-. The Gibbs diagram suggests that weathering rock is the determining factor in the current chemical composition of groundwater. Agricultural activity is the main source of groundwater contamination by nitrates. Most of the water points tested have NO3 values very close to the critical threshold of 50 mg/l, the world health organization (WHO) drinking water reference value. By comparing this with the "human affected value" of 13 mg/l, 95% of the analyzed waters are considered contaminated. This water degradation is linked to the widespread use of nitrogen fertilizers, agricultural practices and increasing urbanization.

Vegetable Species in the Palm Grove of The Ouargla Region (Algeria)

Sara Salhi; Souad BABAHANI; Khira Naami; Abdelkader ALLAM

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132421.1020

The present work on the cultivation of winter vegetable species, which was carried out in the perimeters of development of the six communes of the region of Ouargla. We found that the biodiversity recorded is 16 species and 09 botanical families, during the study period. The most frequent botanical families are : Liliaceae (Allium cepa L.), Chenopodiaceae (Spinacia oleracea.), Asteraceae (Lactuca sativa) and Apiaceae (Daucus carota .). Many local cultivars have been identified; their identification is mainly based on: the origin of the seeds, the shape and color of the fruits. According to the average richness and diversity index calculations, we found that the stations of Sidi Khouiled and Hassi Ben Abdallah have a great diversity, unlike Rouissat and Ouargla where the diversity is low. The local diversity seems to be threatened, this is due to several causes among others the non-reasoned selection of local cultivars and the introduction of hybrid seeds which allows us to validate the first hypothesis that says (the development projects have favored the introduction of many new vegetable species, not traditionally cultivated in the areas and have favored the use of hybrid varieties, with high production potential. This policy induces a genetic erosion, especially for local cultivars) and to reject the second hypothesis that says (the development perimeters participate in the preservation of local cultivars, which ensures their sustainability in the medium and long term).

The Continental Intercalary in Algeria: Analysis, Survey and Perspectives for Green Agriculture Development

Salim Etsouri; Hakim Bachir; Mohamed Bouaziz; Ferhat Kaci; Rabia Malkia; Kaddour Etsouri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132568.1022

The Northern Sahara Aquifer System (NSAS) is a complex system that includes several aquifers overlying most areas. The Continental Intercalary, also known as the "Albian groundwater" is an aquifer with impressive characteristics. It extends over three countries: Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. Intended for crop irrigation, the boreholes drilled in this Algerian aquifer, the boreholes carried out on this aquifer are artesian in their totality, with flows and pressures reaching in some places considerable values, of the order of 0,4 m3.s-1 for the flow and 3.106 Pa for the pressure. These two parameters are necessary to appreciate the energy potential of the Albian groundwater. A survey of the Continental Intercalary was carried out to study its energy potential. We were able to gather all possible data concerning the boreholes in the Algerian aquifer part. The study covered 295 boreholes that were identified and well documented, spread over 3 regions in southern Algeria. The water from the artesian boreholes in the Albian groundwater is transported to storage basins (for drinking water supply, irrigation and industry) for later use, or distributed directly to users after lowering the temperature of the water in the cooling towers. In these operations, all the hydraulic energy is lost and external energy is required from the electricity grid to meet the needs. The cumulative energy potential of all the boreholes identified has reached the theoretical value of 168GWh/year, the equivalent of 14520 toe (ton of oil equivalent) that are lost annually. Best management of this natural resource will not only enable resilient and sustainable management of the production systems and the environment, but also the energy needed to cool the water, as well as the energy needed for the maintenance of the boreholes and the facilities in the direct neighbourhood.

Effect Adding Different Levels of Lemongrass Leaves Powder to the Dietary on the Meat Traits of Broilers

Mokhalad Hasan

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 30-34
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132615.1023

This study was conducted in broiler field / college of Agriculture/ Tikrit University during 9-4 to 14-5-2019 to know the effect of adding lemongrass leaves powder to the dietary on meats traits of broilers. 135 chicks Ross-308 were distributed randomly to three treatments, each treatment divided into three replicates (15 birds per replicate). T1 was standard treatment; T2 and T3 were added 1g and 2g of lemongrass per one kg of diet, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in T2 compared with other treatments in cooking loss and water holding capacity, otherwise, T2 increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the thawing loss compared with T1, the treatments did not differ significantly in the dripping loss. T2 and T3 increased significantly in protein percentage compared with T1, while these treatments were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) compared with T1 in the fat and moisture percentages, the per cent of meat ash did not differ significantly among treatments. The Peroxide Value, Thiobarbituric acid and Free Fatty Acids significantly increased (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. The percentage of all fatty acids like linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic and linolenic increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. We conclude from this study that adding lemongrass powder to broiler diets improved most of the physical and chemical traits of meat.

Effect of Spraying with High Phosphorus Solution and Potassium sulfate on Growth and Yield of Vicia faba L.

Hussein Hameed Abbood AL-Omrani; Evan Teacher

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 35-39
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132856.1026

The current experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2020/2021 in one of the fields belongs to Horticulture and landscape Engineering Department / College of Agriculture / University of Qadisiyah in order to find out the effect of spraying high phosphorus solution and potassium sulfate on growth and yield of Vicia faba cv. local. The experiment included nine factorial treatments: the interaction between spraying with an activator solution contains high phosphorus at concentrations of 0, 1 and 2 g. L-1 and spraying with potassium sulfate at concentrations of 0, 1 and 2 g L -1 also and their interaction in a complete random block design with three replicates. Results showed that spraying with high phosphorus solution at their two concentrations increased all parameters studied especially at a concentration of 2 g.L-1 such as plant eight, number of branches, chlorophyll content, number of pods, pod weight, seed weight and plant yield which recorded values of 88.00 cm, 4.48 branches, 43.78 Spad, 14.50, 19.79 g, 3.83 g and 286.95 g, respectively. Same results were found for potassium sulfate, where the highest concentration gave the highest values except the number of pods which did not differ from the control treatment, and the weight of the pod, where the two concentrations were not differ significantly from each other although they exceeded the control treatment in their effect. With regard to the interaction between the two factors, the combination of the higher concentration of both substances was superior in giving the highest values of the parameters studied except for the number of pods which recorded the highest value at the combination treatment of 1 g. L-1 of phosphorus and 0 g. L-1 of potassium.

Diversity of Plant Communities Associated with Urban Green Spaces in Southwestern Algeria

Mohammed Souddi; Mohammed Bouallala

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132705.1025

Urban green spaces are essential to assuring the quality of life. This study aims to study the diversity of plant communities associated with urban green spaces in southwestern Algeria. Based on data collected from 57 phytoecological surveys with an area of 1 m², plant communities were analyzed using diversity parameters (specific richness, biodiversity indices and similarity) and plant functional traits (life forms, morphological, phytogeographical and dispersal types). 32 species belonging to 31 genera in 13 families have been identified. According to the real spectrum (data based on abundance) of plant functional traits, plant species are mainly geophytes (48.27%) which adopt various dispersal strategies, including barochores (71.55%) and anemochores (17.24%). Phytogeographic analysis revealed the dominance of the cosmopolitan element (41.55%) which is well adapted to the Saharan climate. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of species based on their abundance by Minitab 17 revealed six groups. This work provides important information that can serve as a basis for the management and conservation of biodiversity in southwestern Algeria.

Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Palm Groves of the Central Algerian Sahara (Case of Zelfana)

HAMEL IMANE; MOHAMED BENSLAMA; FOUZI BENBRAHIM; MOHAMED KRAIMAT; FAREDJ CHIKHI; SABRINA DAREM

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 48-57
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132994.1028

Monitoring soil quality in irrigated areas is essential for assessing the sustainability of production systems. In this respect, the spatial variability of the properties of irrigated soils is a mean to know the evolution of the latter. This study aims to determine the spatial variability of soil organic matter, salinity, pH and active limestone using a geostatistical approach. The present study was carried out in the region of Zelfana located in the Algerian central Sahara, the samples were collected from a depth of 0 to 30 cm and analysed for organic matter, salinity, pH and active limestone. The analytical results show that the soil is very poor in organic matter, very salty, alkaline to very alkaline and moderately calcareous. The geostatistical analysis revealed various patterns and levels of spatial distribution of the studied properties. The results showed a weak spatial dependence for organic matter, moderate for pH and salinity and strong for active limestone. The variographic analysis showed that the nugget effect is weak for organic matter and pH, moderate for salinity, while active limestone does not show a nugget effect. The range varies from 75 meters for salinity to 299 meters for organic matter, confirming the validity of the adopted sampling and allowing the optimization of future sampling plans. The Arcgis autoKriging function was used to select the best theoretical variogram model from those most commonly used in geostatistics (Gaussian, spherical, exponential and circular). This model was used to produce the spatial variability maps using ordinary kriging. Spatial variability of soil properties is influenced by agricultural intensification, something that must be taken into consideration for integrated and sustainable land management in similar regions.

Perception of the Effects of Charcoal Production on Rural Households in Kwara State, Nigeria.

Ifabiyi Oluwaseun

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133137.1033

The study examined the rural women’s coping strategies against the effects of covid-19 pandemic in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Eight five respondents were randomly selected in seven communities for the study. The data was collected using frequency count, percentage, mean and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result reveals that all the respondents (100%) were aware that covid-19 had been declared as a pandemic. The increase in price of goods and services (= 4.59) was the highest ranked perceived effect of covid-19 pandemic on the respondents. Rearing of animals (= 1.46) was the highest ranked coping strategy adopted by the respondents against covid-19. There is significant relationship between coping strategies and perceived effects (r=-0.207, p=0.057) at 10% level of significance. The study there recommended that there should be provision of more awareness on covid-19 pandemic and there should be creation of additional job opportunities in the rural areas for women who are affected by covid-19 pandemic.

Tertiary Treatment of Secondary Effluents from the East WWTP of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria) with the Aqueous Extract of Ceratonia Siliqua Green Pod

naima BELMIHOUB; mohammed said METAHRI; Dyhia AISSAOUI; Fetta IHADDADENE

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 60-64
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132881.1034

The antibacterial action of the carob tree offers the possibility of using it for the disinfection of treated wastewater in biological process wastewater treatment plants. This paper reviews studies conducted to investigate the effect of carob tree on the reduction of indicator bacteria of fecal contamination that cannot be removed after the secondary stage of biological treatment. The aim is to use the wastewater safely in irrigation and expand the list of irrigable plants with this unexploited resource. Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters were used to determine the optimal conditions and evaluate the treatment’s efficiency. A contact time of 1 h and a dose of 1 mL of disinfectant reduced E. coli and fecal coliforms from 5.105 CFU to 1 237 CFU (99.75%) and from 7.106 CFU to 1 505 CFU (99.98%), respectively. For the same contact time, the fecal streptococci were reduced from 4.105 CFU to 59 CFU (99.99%). According to WHO standards, this dose and contact time are sufficient to use this water for irrigation. A minimum contact time of 2 h with a dose of 1 mL of the aqueous extract of the green pod of the carob is required to obtain a reduction of E. coli and fecal coliforms from 5.105 CFU to 5 254 CFU (99.95%) and from 7.106 CFU to 340 CFU (99. 99%) to meet the Algerian standards of reuse of treated wastewater being more stringent. The results show that the same conditions reduce fecal streptococci from 4.105 CFU to 5 CFU (99.99%). This elimination level shows that green carob juice can be used for disinfection with the necessary doses for each bacterial load and sufficient contact time.

Consumers’ Perception, Nutritional and Mineral Composition of Processed Cowhide (Ponmo) as Affected by Different Processing Methods

Saheed Ahmed; Ibrahim Banjoko; Muhammed Ahmed; Muyideen Isiaka; Ifabiyi Oluwaseun

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133171.1035

The study was conducted to determine the influence of different processing methods; scalding and singeing on cowhide. Forty (40) pieces each of white scaled Ponmo and black singed Ponmo were pulled together and randomly subjected for proximate evaluation, organoleptic properties determination and mineral contents determination. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the result in a complete randomize design using Duncan Multiple Range Test to separate the means. The result shows that the nutritional value of white scaled Ponmo was significantly higher (p<0.05) than black singed Ponmo. The colour and flavour were better preferred in white scaled Ponmo, aroma in black singed Ponmo, while there was no significant difference in texture, juiciness and overall acceptability of both products. Mineral contents was significantly higher (p<0.05) in white scaled Ponmo compared to black singed Ponmo. The processing methods used in the study therefore, affects the nutrient, eating qualities and mineral contents of the two final products, with white scaled Ponmo having better consumers’ perception and nutritional qualities.

Rural Women’s Coping Strategies Against the Effects of Covid-19 Pandemic in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria

Ifabiyi Oluwaseun

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 70-74
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.173280

The study examined the rural women’s coping strategies against the effects of covid-19 pandemic in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Eight five respondents were randomly selected in seven communities for the study. The data was collected using frequency count, percentage, mean and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The result reveals that all the respondents (100%) were aware that covid-19 had been declared as a pandemic. The increase in price of goods and services (x ̅= 4.59) was the highest ranked perceived effect of covid-19 pandemic on the respondents. Rearing of animals (x ̅= 1.46) was the highest ranked coping strategy adopted by the respondents against covid-19. There is significant relationship between coping strategies and perceived effects (r=-0.207, p=0.057) at 10% level of significance. The study there recommended that there should be provision of more awareness on covid-19 pandemic and there should be creation of additional job opportunities in the rural areas for women who are affected by covid-19 pandemic.

Comparison the Effect of Bromelain and Papain Enzymes on Fish Food which Prepared from Poultry Waste Powder on Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) Growth Performance

nuha albassam

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133119.1031

The study was conducted in the Fish Laboratory / College of Agriculture / University of Tikrit to study the effect of poultry waste powder supplemented with the Bromelain and Papain enzymes at rates of 2% and 3% on growth rates, 60 fish were randomly distributed with two replicates for each treatment, 6 fish for each replicate into 10 aquaria. The fish feed containing poultry droppings powder were prepared and chemical analyzes were conducted and they were used to feed common carp fish Cyprinus Carpio L. Treatment T3 recorded the highest weight gain of 91.49 g, while it decreased in treatment T2 to 69.85 g. The relative growth rate of treatment T3: 54.62% increased, and the specific growth of 0.30 g / day, and the efficiency of food conversion decreased in treatment T4: 28.30% compared with the other treatments. Significant differences were recorded at the level (P≤0.05) between the different experimental treatments, and most of the treatments covered the common carp requirements of essential amino acids.

Contribution to the Optimization of Phospho-Nitrogen Fertilization on a Durum Wheat Crop in Saline and Calcareous Soil

Tahraoui souaad; Ali MASMOUDI

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 81-92
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133371.1036

The soils of Algeria are generally poor in nitrogen and always pose the problem of the availability of available phosphorus especially in arid regions, where there is also the problem of salinity which is often accompanied by the presence of limestone. The present work aims to examine the optimization of phospho-nitrogen fertilization on a durum wheat crop in saline and carbonate conditions through the use of different types, forms and doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. The fertilizers used are: Urea(46%), triple super phosphate TSP(46%), simple super phosphate SSP(20%), Potassium Nitrate KNO3(13%), Monammonium phosphate MAP(12%, 61%), NPK(15%,15%,15%), NPK(20%,20%,20%), NPK(13%,40%,13%), NPK(30%,10%,10%), NPK(4%,20%,25%), combined with three doses (D1=150U N and P ha-1, D2=200U N and P ha-1 and D3=250U N and P ha-1). The results obtained show that phospho-nitrogen fertilization has a very important effect on the parameters studied. Indeed, we notice that the best results are obtained by compound fertilizers, height of the plants: (HP) =MAP and NPK(15%,15%,15%) (250U ha-1) and (KNO3-SSP) (150U ha-1), yield and its components: Number of grains ear-1 (NG E-1) =NPK(13%,40%,13%) (250U ha-1), 1000 grains weight (TGW) =NPK(4%,20%,25%) (250U ha-1), grain Yield (GY) =NPK(13%,40%,13%) (250U ha-1) and NPK(15%,15%,15%) (150U/ha), straw yield (SY) =NPK(15%,15%,15%) (250U ha-1) and (KNO3-SSP) (150U ha-1). However the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content of the grains is obtained by simples fertilizers, N= (Urea-SSP) with the dose (200 and 250 U ha-1), and P = (Urea-TSP) with the dose (150U ha-1). It is noted that the NPK(15%,15%,15%) fertilizer was able to give better grain and straw yields with the lowest dose as well as obtaining the best plant height and better straw yield with the lowest dose of (KNO3-SSP) fertilizer.

The Growth Parameters Response of Broiler Chicks Fed Partial replacement of Rice Bran for the Yellow Corn

Israa S. Al-Tayyar; Tariq Almrsomi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 93-97
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133555.1038

Not long ago, Researchers try to find a suitable alternative source from the cereal by-product instead of yellow corn. Today there is a global shortage in cereal production, so to archive goals to make less dependent on regular cereals which used in human feeding we have to examine using unusual feed staff like Rice bran.  Our experiment was carried out in poultry farm, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture/ University of Kufa to explore the broiler productive performance of Rose 308 fed rice bran diets with partly replacement of Yellow Corn. 225 chicks were used in our study by distributing them into 5 treatments as trails: (T1) control (50% yellow corn), T2, T3 substituted 5, 7.5 % of raw rice bran by yellow corn respectively, T4, T5 substituted 5, 7.5 % of Rice bran (treated with Ascorbic acid) by yellow corn. Our results show that: No significant differences in marketing live body weight, body weight gain, accumulative feed consumption and accumulative feed conversion ratio for experimental groups fed diet supplementing by Raw Rice bran or preserved by Ascorbic acid with control group, which main feeding broiler by rice bran diets has enhanced growth performance in broiler chicken. Our indication is substitution of 5 or 7.5 % rice bran with yellow corn had no bad effect on broiler performance.

Response of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to NP Fertilizer Rates and Plant Population Density at Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

Muhidin Hajigelan; Eshetu Yadete; Sisay Gurmu

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 97-110
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133490.1037

F
Field experiments were carried out for 2018-2020 main cropping seasons at kersa and Omonada Jimma on farmers’ fields. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 23/23, 23/46, 46/46 and 69/69 NP kg ha-1 levels with inter and intra (333333, 250000, 200000 and 166667 plant density ha-1) respectively laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications using (Nassir) common bean variety. Across season and location data analysis of ANNOVA showed that all parameters were significantly affected by different densities and NP fertilizer rates including above ground biomass, harvest index and grain yield except harvest index was not affected by NP fertilizer rates. The highest plant height (72.51cm) was recorded from the highest (69/69 kg ha-1) NP fertilizer rate. The highest above ground biomass and grain yield of 6.40 and 2.45 t ha-1 were obtained from the highest (333333) plant density ha-1. Also, it showed still there was an increase in plant density increases with 26.29 and 6.52% grain yield advantage over the lowest density and control recommendation respectively. Also from economic and sensitivity analysis results treatments (333333) ha-1 plant population density, (23/23) and (46/46) kg/ha NP fertilizer rates gave the highest yield response and net benefit with MMR 1035, 111 and 224% respectively. In conclusion, intra and inter row spacing 3*10cm or equivalent (333333) ha-1 plant population density with applications of one of the two (23-23) or (46/46) kg/ha NP fertilizer rates based on their resource was recommended to farmers of study areas and similar agro ecology.

Role of Some Inducing Additives in in vitro Maturation Environment of Farm Animal's Oocytes: Status Evaluation

Omar Mardenli; mahdi salih; Hadi Awad Hassooni; Halil İbrahim Çetinkaya; Ghassan Al-Shammas

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 111-123
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133656.1039

This review focused on highlighting the importance of the biochemical role of some additives that have a stimulating impact on in vitro maturation (IVM) of farm animal oocytes. The supportive role that these additives played has led to a noticeable increase in embryos yields. Nevertheless, there are some considerations that must be taken into account for the process of producing embryos in vitro to function optimally. Among the hormones, the famous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin hormone (CG)), estradiol and growth hormone (GH) occupied a wide area in IVM, but the usage of these hormones still limited to specific concentrations as the increase in their concentrations did not give the desired effect. Due to the historical popularity and the primary role of cysteamine as an antioxidant agent, its usage has increased recently. However, this usage has also remained limited to specific concentrations, as are hormones. Besides, cysteamine was an important reason for obtaining high rates of embryos in the blastocyst stage. Conversely, there was a reservation in the use of follicular fluid (FF) and fetal calf serum (FCS). Although these two elements are rich in hormones, proteins, lipids and various growth factors, FF contains factors that inhibit the maturation of oocytes. Moreover, FCS has a negative role in the quality of resulted embryos because of the high levels of lipids (triglycerides).

Waste Alkaline Residues Impact in Desertification Treatment in Iraq

Nadia Ghdeeb; Asma Hadi Mohammed; Aseel Mustafa AbdlMajeed

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 124-130
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133661.1040

Waste Cement waste (the by-product of the cement industry) is produced from  a dry and wet method for manufacturing  cement. These wastes are produced in large quantities from various cement factories that are estimated in tons thrown in the land located in different places of the country, for example, Kufa cement factory in addition to a huge amount of cement dust produced by (450Tons per day) and their influence on the environment. Therefore, a safe method must be found so that can eliminate these wastes because the by-product contains heavy metals and their oxides which are harmful to the human and to the environment especially air pollution and desertification. In this research it has been utilized these wastes as major and minor nutrients for sand soils (major nutrients Ca, K, S, Fe and small nutrients (Mn, Zn, Cu)), cement dust is added in certain proportions to the sandy desert lands. The result showed significant yields by increasing the content of sandy soil from the major and minor nutrients. This enables us to gain a safe environment and solve desertification problem which has a major cause to the environmental pollution

A Review of The Current Status of Migratory Wild Birds in Iraq and Syria

mahdi salih; Omar Mardenli; Tariq Salah Fathi Almrsomi; Mohammed Rasoul Mahdi Jasim

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 131-142
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133702.1041

Iraq and Syria are among the countries that are frequented by wild birds in great numbers and species due to the abundance of water, green spaces, moderate climate in winter and the lack of predators. The two countries fall under the migration line of birds that stretches between East Asia and East Africa. The results of the survey, which were conducted nearly twenty years ago, indicated that there are at least 400 species of migratory birds coming to Iraq and Syria (The majority are from the Accipitres (Accipitridae) and passerines (Passeriformes)). In Iraq, the marshes (Al-Ahwar) are inhabited by species of birds that are rare in other parts of the world like the Iraq Babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) and the rocking reed of Basra (Acrocephalus griseldis). The rare endangered Namaqua Dove (Oena Capensis) was seen in the Syrian Badia.  Recently, the status of the deputed birds has decreased in terms of numbers and species due to a set of reasons, the most important of which is the phenomenon of over-hunting, which has negatively affected the numbers of birds, especially birds that are threatened with extinction and included in the red list such as the Ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca) and the Eurasian teal (Anas Crecca). The demographic fluctuation and war conditions have led to the reluctance of some species to come to Iraq and Syria and change the course of their migration to other places. The emergence of some non-traditional methods of hunting by bird hunters, such as the establishment of artificial waterbodies to attract waterfowl, led to an unprecedented decline in the numbers of these birds. The lack of legal oversight, lack of accountability, and the tendency of bird hunters to hunt in uncontrolled areas increased the great damage to wild birds in particular and to wildlife in general.

Evaluation of the Sustainability of Phoenicultural and Market Gardening Production Systems of the Development in the Ouargla Region (Southern Algeria)

DJOUHRI Nesrine; BOUAMMAR Boualem; DADAMOUSSA Mohamed Lakhdar

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 143-155
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133728.1042

The aim of our work is to study the sustainability of seal and market gardening production systems. This study was carried out in two study areas N'goussa and Hassi Ben Abdellah in the region of Ouargla (Algeria), through 75 surveys in different farms where we elaborated a typology of evolution in order to know the determining elements of the trajectories. The Ouargla region's Farm Sustainability Indicator (IDEA) is important. The assessment of agro-ecological, socio-territorial and economic indicators indicates that the agro-ecological indicator is the most represented by (the indicator of fertilizer and agricultural practices) by 46 out of 100. The work was followed by statistical analyses (using Excel stat) to study sustainability constraints. The results show that the polyculture system (date palm, market gardening, etc.) is the most dynamic in terms of cultivation practices. The market gardening production system is economically profitable in the two study areas due to the evolution of market gardening under shelter. The stability of the seal farming system and its uniqueness indicate that it shows the most signs of sustainability. 

Impact of Cryopreservation Techniques on Embryos Viability and Normality in Awassi Sheeps

Raed Kawkab Al &amp;ndash; Muhja

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133789.1043

This study was  conducted to show the effect of three different techniques of embryo freezing on the vitality and percentage of normal embryos. This research was carried out Between December 2020 and June 2021, in the Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproduction at Al-Nahrain  University . Ovaries were  obtained from ewes that were slaughtered in a Shulla local slaughterhouse. 75 ovaries were obtained and randomly divided into three groups in this study. Oocytes were extracted from the ovaries using an aspiration procedure, followed by in vitro maturation, fertilization, early embryonic development, then vitrification, Rapid cryopreservation, slow cryopreservation, and finally vital tests and natural embryos. The nappy vitrification process was determined to be the best for cryopreservation of embryos in this investigation.  

Nitrogen Fertilizer Split Application Response on Late Maturing Maize ((Zea mays L.) at Banshure and Omonada Woredas, Sowthwest Ethiopia

Muhidin Hajigelan; Sisay Gurmu; Eshetu Yadete

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 162-172
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133975.1044

The field experiments were carried out at Buno Bedele and Omonada Jimma Zones on farmers’ fields for three consecutive main seasons and two sites each. The 10 treatments were laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications using (BH661) hybrid maize variety. All across season and location data analysis of ANNOVA showed that all parameters were significantly affected by different time of nitrogen applications including plant height, grain yield, and harvest index, above ground biomass and logging percentage. The two highest grain yield 6.48 and 6.47 was recorded from applying 1/3 at planting + 2/3 at flag leaf appearance stage and applying 1/2 at planting + 1/2 at 4-5 weeks after emerge (Positive control) respectively again this treatment gave 13.08 and 12.62 t ha-1 above ground biomass yield respectively. The highest grain yield has 78.24 and 23.00 % yield advantage over negative control and applying all recommended N rate at planting respectively. Again in economic analysis, the above treatments gave the highest 111660 and 111840 net benefit respectively. Even though the applying 1/3 at planting + 2/3 at flag leaf appearance treatment MMR was not acceptable. Therefore, based on the highest net benefit applying 1/2 at planting + 1/2 at 4-5 weeks after emerge (Positive control) and applying 1/3 at planting + 2/3 at flag leaf appearance nitrogen fertilizer split application on late maturing (BH661) maize variety give an economic yield response and also acceptable for farmers of study areas and similar agro ecology.

Analysis of Date’s Market Functioning (Phoenix Dactylifera L), in Ouargla, South-Est of Algeria: Challenges and Constraints

Ben sayah Faiza; Souad Babahanni; Salah Eddine Ben Ziouche; Abderrahmane Boutouil; Zineb Djelfaoui

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 173-183
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.134039.1045

This study aims to analyse date’s market functioning and constraints that are facing it in Southeast of Algeria, Ouargla region. To analyze potential market pathways (traders, collectors and intermediaries) 100 respondents were randomly selected. Descriptive statistical analysis has been applied to achieve the research’s gaols. Analysis confirms that, Ouargla does not have an organized date-palm market dedicated to dates only, and which is characterized by total anarchy mainly due to lack of improved and advanced management, regulation and a lot of intermediaries spread. Date’s marketing in this area of study is complex because it is a string composed of producers, collectors, storers and mandataries in upstream. However, packers, processors and exporters are in downstream, thus a stakeholder’s divergence is created, for varietie’s quality as well as destinations in the marketplace’s channels. Most of traders are at an economically active age. Therefore, they should be able to perform their marketing functions effectively. Date’s varieties that are sold in the area of study differ from trader to another which is depending on their availability customers, prices offered as well as operator’s financial capacity. Indeed, 46% of fresh dates are available in market during the full harvest period but unfortunately this coincides with local and external market’s saturation where imbalanced supply and demand induce lower date’s price. This study allows to identify main constraints of date’s sector marketing that hinder its efficiency, which are related to technical, professional, social - cultural and commercial environment as a result this sector’s market suffers from serious dysfunctions.

Effect of Chemical Correction of Irrigation Water on a Barley Crop

Mohamed Masmoudi; Belgacem Boumaraf; Ali MASMOUDI

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 184-191
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.134065.1046

The lack of fresh water for irrigation in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas is often posed as a major problem for agriculture, which requires research to valorize saline irrigation water. This work aims to study the impact of chemical correction of irrigation water quality on barley. The corrected waters were prepared from the raw waters by applying the doses of calcium represented by Ca(NO3)2 4H2O according to their soluble sodium content, whose aim is to balance the two sodium and calcium contents. The treatments are five types of raw water of different salinity S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 as well as five types of corrected water S1C, S2C, S3C, S4C and S5C. The parameters studied are: length of the stems, length of the spike, number of grains per spike, grain yield, straw yield and the weight of 1000 grains. The results obtained show that the chemical correction has a positive effect on the length of the stems, the number of grains per spike, the grain and straw yield. Calcium correction reduces the harmful effect of sodium and alleviates the aggressiveness of salinity.