Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2021, Page 1-80


Study of Sediments Accumulated of Tigris River in Al-Kut Barrage and Their Effect on Engineering Criteria of River Sections

Afnan Mnaty; Jamal Abedalrahman

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168284

The study was conducted on the Tigris River, in front of the Al-Kut Barrage. The study period continued (11 months), where six vertical sections were chosen upstream of Kut Barrage, the distance between one section to another was 100 m. The first section begins at 350 m from the front of Barrage. The result showed that variation in the discharge of Tigris River in  upstream of Kut Barrage during the months of the study period, and it is noticed that the values of the discharge of the studied sections ranged from 117.35 m3/sec  to 542.71 m3/sec, and the lowest average value of  discharge was 217.84 m3/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of discharge was 411.19 m3/sec on February 2019. The values of velocity of the current water of the studied sections ranged from 0.121 m/sec to 0.567 m/sec, and the lowest value of velocity was 0.225 m/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of velocity was 0.402 m/sec on April 2019. The flow area of Tigris River ranged from 295.6 m2 to 2080. 8 m2 during the period of study. The depth of water levels of Tigris River ranged from 1.36m to 4.68 m, the area of accumulated sediments upstream of Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 1069.2m2 to 2854. 4 m2 during the period of study. The volume of the accumulated sediments upstream Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 139000m3 to 257740m3.

Study of Water Quality of Tigris River Upstream Al-Kut Barrage

Jamal Abedalrahman; Afnan Mnaty

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 10-13
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168285

The study was conducted on the water quality of Tigris River in upstream of AL-Kut Barrage during the period of August 2018 to June 2019. Six vertical sections have been selected upstream of Al-Kut Barrage. The distance between one section to another was 100 m, the first section begins at 350 m from the origin of Barrage. The result showed that the values of cadmium ion were 0.0346 ug/L to 0.0707 ug/L. The Lead values of the Tigris River water samples were 4.29 ug /L to 8.33 ug /L. The values of nickel ion have been ranged between 7.59 ug/L to 9.75 ug/L. Zinc ions have been recorded 53.5 ug /L to 72.1 ug /L. The concentration of above ions was situated within Iraqi and world Health organization (WHO) criterions that relating with propriety of water of Tigris River for drinking and irrigation.

Evaluation of The Predatory Efficiency of Orius Albidipennis Reuter for Two Prey Species Myzus Persicae (Sulzer) and Thrips Tabaci Lind. on The Carrot Plant in Laboratory

Anmar Khamis; Alaa Jabbar

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168286

The study aimed to investigate the effect of different densities of M.persicae and T. tabaci on the predatory ability of the predator O. albidipennis and determine the preference for one of the two prey, in addition to assessing the in vitro predator's efficiency in reducing the number of aphids on the carrot plant. The results indicated that the rates of predated adult and nymph thrips were significantly higher than that of predated aphids. The highest rate of predation for nymphs and adults thrips was 33.2 and 25 preys per day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container, while the highest rate of predation of adults and nymphs of aphids was 19 and 13.2prey/day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container. The food preference experiment showed that the adults of the predator O. albidipennis feed on the immature stages thrips and aphids when introduced together and have no clear preference for one of the prey. The results of evaluating the efficiency of predator adults on reducing different densities of aphids showed that the predator was effectively able to reduce the population increase of aphids when the insect densities were 10, 20 or 30 insect. however, the predator was not effective when introduced to aphids at starting density of 40, no significant difference was found due to predator presence or absence as the aphids population density were 118.4 and 135.2 insects/cage after four days, respectively.

The Effect of Biofertilizer of Azola, Phosphate and Nitrogen Fertilizers on Yield and Grain Quality of Rice

Sajjad Al-Bdairi; Jawad kadhem

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168287

A field experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2019 in one of the fields of Al-Tahiniah village - Al-Mahanawiya district which is 36 km away from the Diwaniyah governorate center, to study the effect of Azola, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers and the interactions between them on yield components, yield and grains quality of the rice grown in water logging conditions. The experiment was arrangement as factorial experiment according to Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) at three replications. The experiment included three factors, the first factor included the application of Azolla (Azolla pinnata L.) at 20 tons ha-1 and the control treatment (without application of Azolla), while the second factor included application three levels of phosphate fertilizer (21, 42 and 84 kg P ha-1) as well as the control treatment (without application of phosphate fertilizer), whereas the third factor included application two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (92 and 184 kg N ha-1) as well as the control treatment (without application of nitrogen fertilizer). The results showed that the application of Azolla pinnata L. achieving the highest results of the number of panicles per plants, number of grains per panicle and grain yield by 30.30, 6.37 and 7.80% respectively compared with control treatment that achieved the lowest results for all traits respectively. Also, the application of phosphate fertilizer at half recommended amount (42 kg P ha-1) was significantly superior and gave the highest results of the number of panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle and grain yield with a significant increase of 35.29, 4.76 and 7.55 respectively compared with control treatment. In addition to, the application of nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended amount (184 kg N ha-1) had the highest results of the number of panicles per plant and number of grains per panicles by 48.29 and 5.75% respectively, without significant difference on the application of nitrogen fertilizer at half the recommended amount (92 kg N ha-1) which had the highest mean of the grain yield by 4.94% compared with control treatment which had the lowest results for all traits respectively. The interaction between the application of Azola and the levels of phosphate fertilizer, application of Azola and the levels of nitrogen fertilizer, application of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers as well as the tri-interaction between three factors had significant effect in all the studied traits except the weight of 1000 grains. We can concluded that the application of Azolla pinnata L. reduced the amounts of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer by 50% of Recommended amounts and led to improvement the yield and yield components of rice in addition to grain rice quality.

In Vitro Investigation of Trichoderma Strain Potential Against Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

Wiam Benlamoudi; Wassima Lakhdari; Abderrahmene Dehliz; Omar Guezoul

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 32-35
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168288

Three modes of action of Trichoderma strain are evaluated, with in vitro tests, in order to verify the potential of this antagonistic against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolated from tomato plant in Oued Righ region, Algerian southeast. Inhibition rates of Fusarium wilt of the order of 56, 65 and 70% are respectively obtained with antibiosis, competition and mycoparasitism mechanisms. Results, analyzed by ANOVA, are confirmed that the biological agent showed significant fungistatic effect towards Fusarium wilt of tomato most importantly by mycoparasitism that constitutes the most effective mechanism among all the tests applied. 

Rainfall Trends in Semi-Arid Cereal Regions of Algeria

Mawhoub Amirouche; Dalila Smadhi; Lakhdar Zella; Hakim Bachir

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.129187.1000

The study focuses on rainfall, number of rainy days and droughts, on an annual time step basis, over the period (1940-2019). Each parameter is analysed by the average behavior of 1,817 variables representative of 23 semi-arid wilayas. The approach helps to characterise the rainfall climate of cereal-growing regions, where production and yields per hectare are unstable for decades.The average rainfall, estimated at 423 mm, shows a cyclical evolution, reflected by a change in averages: 430, 405, 440 mm. These averages reproduce two relatively rainy cycles (1940-1970) and (2000-2019), separated by a dry cycle (1970-2000). The frequency of cyclical rains, however, shows that rains above 400 mm remain less dominant over 79 years. The averages of observations decrease progressively with the increase of the quantities of rains, that is to say, percentages that do not exceed 14, 13 and 9%. These characteristics underline interannual droughts, which fluctuate between 0.8 and -2.5, showing a progressively decreasing number of rainy days. The results obtained do not seem to explain all the variations in cereal production and yield. However, the correlation coefficients below 35% reflect the efficient use of rainfall during the crop growth cycle, which is subject to other production factors.

Assessment of Water Quality of Kodiat Rosfa Dam and Suitability For Consumption and Irrigation (Algeria)

Chellali Rachid; AISSAT Miloud; Berrekbia Mohammed

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.129419.1003

The approach adopted for the assessment of Kodiat Rosfa dam water quality, through the respective indexes WQI and IWQI, allowed to highlight the quality of its waters for the intended uses. Indeed, the physicochemical analyzes of the months of February, March, July and December, corresponding to the monthly precipitation and regularized volumes of 2013, 2014, 2015 selected,  revealed that 08 samples out of 12 have a WQI within 50 to 100, and 04 samples with WQI lower than 50. This classified the dam waters as good to excellent for consumption. Nevertheless, the results of IWQI index used to assess the quality of dam water Kodiat Rosfa for irrigation show that 7 samples out of 12 present an IWQI within 55 to 70 and 5 samples with IWQI lower than 55. These waters are characterized by moderate (MR) to high (HR) restriction.

Improvement of Interpolation Using Information From Rainfall Stations and Comparison of Hydroclimate Changes (1913-1938)/(1986-2016)

Hakim Bachir; Souheila Kezouh; M‘hamed Ait-oubelli; Ahcène Semar; Dalila Smadhi; Karim Ouamer-ali

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 54-67
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.129350.1002

The primary objective of this study is to use a better method for rainfall mapping in areas with low density rain gauge networks. Secondly, to identify and study hydro-climatic change in the semi-arid high plains of eastern Algeria on the basis of a comparative mapping approach. The latter concerns the annual rainfall map produced by the authors of this paper for the period studied (1986/2016) and the annual rainfall map for the period 1913/1938, prepared by Chaumont and Paquin (1971). The results of this analysis show that isohyets between 300 mm and 350 mm cover a large part of the study area, they occupy an area of 14444 Km², followed by isohyets between 200 mm and 300 mm with an area of 5298 Km². In addition, the comparative analysis between the periods showed that hydro-climatic change was clear for the 200 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm isohyets, whereas there are no major changes for the 500 mm and above isohyets. Data processing based on a combination of statistical and geostatistical analysis (multiple linear regression and kriging) has once again shown the value of taking into account other parameters in the design of rainfall maps, such as geomorphological and geographical parameters.

The Effect of Awassi Ewes Body Condition Scores on Milk Production, Composition and Lambs Growth

wissam jasim mohammed Ali

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 68-71
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168289

This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of body condition scores (BCS) and Sex of lamb on Awassi ewes milk production, composition and lambs growth. The experiment conducted at one of the Awassi sheep breeders in Baibokht area (8km north of Mosul city ) for three months. Ewes were fed concentrate  500g/ewe/day, 60% barley, 38%  wheat bran, 1% salt and 1% limestone, with grazing. ewes were divided in to three groups. First group body condition score (BCS 2), the second group (BCS 3) and the third group (BCS 4). The results revealed BCS3 had a significant effect (P<0.05) on weekly milk yield, total milk yield, fat percentage and lambs weight at different ages and no significant effects of BCS on milk Lactose, Protein, total solid and solid non-fat percentage. Sex of lamb had a significant effect (P<0.05) on weekly milk yield and total  milk yield and lambs weight from birth until weaning. And no significant effects on milk composition. In general this means that BCS  led to significant improvement in the studied traits for behalf highly BCS compared to low. Male lambs had a significant effect on ewes milk yield and lambs weight.

The Impact of Biological Inoculation on Zea Mays L. growth, Protein Content, and Iron Availability Under Different Levels of Water Stress

Tabarak Shuppar; Jawad kadhem

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 72-80
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168290

This study aims to investigate the effect of biological inoculation with Azotobacter chrococcum and Glomus mosseae on the growth and yield of Zea mays L., the variety of Baghdad 3 under different levels of water stress. A field experiment was carried out in the fall season of 2020 in a private farm in the Diwaniyah Governorate-Afak district. According to the Randomized Complete Block Design R.C.B.D, the experiment was designed with three replications, and the treatment was distributed randomly. Three levels of irrigation were used in the experiment (I4 irrigation every four days, I7 irrigation every seven days,  I10 irrigation every ten days) and the levels of inoculation (B1 inoculation with A-chrococcum and B0 not inoculating with bacteria) and ( F1 inoculating with G-mosseae and F0 non-inoculation) and ( B1F1 interaction between fungus and bacteria). The means were compared using the L.S.D. Test at a 5% significance level. The results present that the treatments inoculated with fungi or bacteria or both, and for a seven-day irrigation period, significantly increased the values ​​of the traits (plant height, dry weight of the vegetative part, length of corn cob, protein percentage, soil content of available iron during the flowering and end of season periods). They had the highest values ​​ 358, 85.71, 25.63, 12.23, 0.5423, and 0.4873 cm plant-1, respectively, compared to the treatments (control + irrigation every ten days) as they resulted in 165, 32.87, 9.07, 6.75, 0.3133, and 0.2823 cm plant-1, respectively.