Volume 10, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2020, Page 0-0


AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF CORN (Zea mays L.) TO A BIOSTIMULANT FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN ALGERIA

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 215-220

Abstract: This study highlights the effect of a biostimulant based on Trichoderma, indigenous antagonistic fungus from the region of Touggourt, on the development of a local variety of corn. This study was conducted at the experimental station of National Institute of Agronomic Research (Sidi Mehdi, Touggourt) as a complete randomaize block designe. The examined agro-morphological parameters showed that the application of this bioproduct stimulates vegetative growth of the plant. Besides, better germination and earliness of seeds. The results showed more interesting values were obtained in the treated plots (height = 135.9 cm, diameter = 28.9 mm, surface of leaves = 318 cm2, Pan = 10.2 panicles/plant) compared to those of the controls (height = 98.6 cm, diameter = 23.7 mm, surface of leaves = 260.4 cm², Pan = 7.4 panicles/plant). Statistical analyzes confirmed the existence of a very highly significant difference between treated and control subjects.

The Effect of Crossbreeding on Some Economic Traits for Chicks of Lohmann Chicken

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 221-226

Abstract: The experiment has been conducted at the poultry farm of Al-Qadisyah University, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production , for the period 24/11/2018 till 10/4/2019 by using 80 hatching chicks which belong to 20 dams and 5 sires, each sire includes 16 chicks. Four chickens are put with each sire, the first sire( Leghorn) crossbreeding with dams of Lohmann , the remaining sires are local cocks ,with five Lohmann hens. The chicks of each sire divided into two replicates ,each replicate contains 8 chicks , the experiment continues for 42 days of age.
The experiment aims to study the effect of sire groups on growth traits (weight at hatching , weight at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain ) Also , the effect of sire on weekly consumption feed , in addition to estimate the heritability for previous traits and the genetic correlations among these traits.
The results can be summarized as follows :
1- The overall means of weight at hatching , weigh at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain are 34.572 , 354.898 , 320.327 and 7.627 gm respectively , the sire groups appear significantly (p0.05) effect on weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age and weekly consumption seeds.
2- Sex has significantly (p0.05) effect on weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age.
3- The conversion feed ratio is 3.462 gm consume feed/ gm of meat.
4- The estimated values of heritability for weight at hatching weight at 42 days of age , weight gain and daily weight gain and daily weight gain , are 0.332 , 0.55 , 0.55 and 0.56 respectively.
The values of genetic correlation between weight at hatching and weight at 42 days of age and between weight at hatching and weight gain are 0.98 and 0.58 respectively.

Effect of Breed and Some Non - Genetic Factors on Milk Production and Some Proportions of Its Chemical Components in Two Breeds of Local Sheep

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 227-231

Abstract : The study was carried out on 19 ewes of local Awassi sheep and 12ewes local Arabi sheep in the Al-kafeel sheep station Karbala, to determine the effect of breed and some non-genetic factors such as (sex of the lamb, type of birth, age and weight of ewes at birth) on daily and total milk production and lactation period and some of milk components (fat, protein and lactose). The results showed that a significant effect (P <0.05) of the breed on milk production traits where Awassi sheep recorded the highest mean (0.91 kg , 101.63 kg , 104.86 day) compared to the Arabi sheep she was means (0.77 kg , 88.15 kg , 99.15 day) respectively. As well as in proportions of milk components with mean( 5.1 , 4.90 , 5.51) % respectively compared to the Arabi sheep (4.70 . 4.20 . 4.89) ewes with male lambs also exceeded superior ewes with female lambs in daily and total milk production and the lactation period the sex of the lamb did not affect the proportions of milk components the weight of the ewes had a significant effect (P <0.05) in milk production attributes with superior weight of ewes on lower ewes and did not affect the proportions of milk ingredients except for lactose. The type of birth and the age of the ewes did not have a significant effect in all the studied traits except for the superiority (P<0.05) of young ewes on age ewes in the fat percentage of milk.

Effect Infection of Azotobacter Chroococcum, Azospirillum Brasilense, Poultry Residues in Ammonium Concentration and (Sorghum Bicolor L.)

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 232-240

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in one of the fields located in Al Muthanna Governorate / Samawa district / Mohamed Ali region in sedimentary soil with Silt Clay in the autumn season of 2018 To study the effect of Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, poultry residue in ammonium concentration and growth of white maize(Plant height, dry matter weight, available soil content of ammonium) The experiment was designed using a three-replicated (R.C.B.D) experiment. Experimental factors included two levels of Azospirillum brasilense (infection and without infection) and two levels of Azotobacter chroococcum (infection and no infection) and three levels of poultry waste (0.3, 5)T.ha-1 Respectively, and sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was cultured on 23/7/2018. The results of the field experiment can be summarized as follows:
1. A baselines injection was given a significant increase in plant length, dry matter content and the soil content of ammonium concentration at the time of flowering Reaching 204.08 cm, 1.784 T.h-1 , 77.48 mg NH-4 kg-1 soil respectively compared to the control treatment.
2. A single bacterial infection with A. chroococcum gave a significant increase in all the above traits, reaching 204.59 cm, 1.785 T.ha-1,77.73 (mg NH4-kg-1 soil), respectively, compared with control treatment.
3. The level of 5 t .h - 1 of the poultry residues increased significantly in all the above qualities, reaching 206.93 cm and 1.88 T.ha-1 , 78.78 mg NH4-kg-1 soil, respectively, compared to control treatment.
4. Interval treatment (A.brasilense + 5 T.h -1 poultry waste) significantly increased dry matter content and the soil content of ammonium during the period of flowering amounted to 2.00 t.h-1, 80.38 mg NH4 - kg-1 soil, respectively compared with the control treatment.
5. Treatment of interaction (A.chroococcum + 5 T. h-1 Poultry residues) significant increase in the soil content of ammonium during the period of flowering amounted to 81.66 (mg NH4- Kg -1 soil) compared to control treatment.
6. The treatment was of interaction duple (A.brasilense + A.chroococcum) gave a significant increase in the dry matter yield of 1.89 t.ha-1.
7. the treatment of the tripal interaction was given significant increase ( Abrasilense + A.chroococcum + 5 t. h-1 Poultry residues )significant increase in all of the above characteristics Reaching 216.60 cm and 2.14 tons., 83.68 (mg NH4 kg-1 soil), respectively, compared to the control treatment, Which gave a lower set.

Effect of Bio and Organic Fertilizers on Pumpkin's (Cucurbita pepo L.) Leave Content of N, P, and K

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 241-245

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of bacterial bio-fertilization A. chroococcum and P. putide and four levels of compost (0, 1, 2, 3) tons.h-1 on the leaves content of N.P.K elements. The experiment was carried out in one of the greenhouses of the College of Agriculture - University of Al-Qadisiyah during fall season 2018-2019. It designed in accordance with the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates in sandy loam soil. The means of treatments were compared with the least significant difference (LSD) at (5)% probability level. The results present that the treatments of A. chroococcum, P. putide and compost at (3) tons.kg-1 significantly increases the leaves content of K.P.K compared to all other treatments in the flowering stage (4.970, 0.5000, and 4.930) mg.kg-1, respectively. This treatment was followed by the effect of the treatment of A. chroococcum and compost at (3) tons.kg-1, which increases the values of all traits except the leaf content of (P). Bio-fertilizer with P. putide + A. chroococcum significantly increases the leaves' content of P.

EFFECT OF LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ADDITION OF PROBIOTIC (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS) ON SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF INSULIN, TSH AND GROWTH HORMONES IN AWASSI LAMBS

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 246-252

To maintain the body on its metabolic activities, including catabolic and anabolic processes, it needs tools. Insulin, thyroxine, growth hormone and other hormones are considered the tools that contribute to regulate metabolism in living organism. The studies that interest in that scope and applied on ruminants are too scarce, therefore the current research has studied the effect of levels of dietary protein and probiotic additives (Live Saccharomyces cerevisiae more than 3.0×1013 CFU and bacillus subtilis more than 4.0 ×109CFU) on insulin, TSH and growth hormone of Awassi sheep. In this study was used sixteen sheep, animals have divided to four groups (four animals in each group). The first group fed with crude protein(cp) (12%) with no probiotics, the second group fed with cp (12%) plus 1 kg/ton probiotic, the third group fed with cp (14%) with no probiotics, and finally the fourth one fed with cp (14%) plus 1 kg/ton probiotic. The main results have shown that there is significant increase (P<0.01) in the insulin concentration between class cp (12%) comparing with class cp (14%). Regarding the interaction treatments, there is a significant increase (P<0.05) between cp (12%) plus no probiotic comparing with cp (14%) plus no probiotic and with cp (14%) plus probiotic, and between cp (12%) plus probiotic comparing with cp (14%) plus probiotic. Concerning TSH, the results shows that there is a significant increase (P<0.01) between cp (12%) plus no probiotic comparing with cp (12%) plus probiotic and with cp (14%) plus no probiotic, and between cp (14%) plus probiotic comparing with cp (12%) plus probiotic and with cp (14%) plus no probiotic. Regarding growth hormone, results haven’t shown any significant differences among any classes whether in main effects or in interaction treatments. We could conclude that, there are significant effects of dietary protein levels plus probiotic additives on insulin and TSH concentrations but not on growth hormone concentration.

Effect of Urea and Nano-Nitrogen Fertigation and Foliar Application of Nano-Boron and Molybdenum on some Growth and Yield Parameters of Potato

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 253-263

Investigating the effect of urea and nano-nitrogen fertigation and foliar application of nano B and Mo on growth and yield of potato Solanum tuberosum L. [Rivera-A]. The study was conducted in a private farm located in the Al-Taleah area - Babylon governorate. The experiment consisted of (12) treatments consisting of separated fertigation of nano nitrogen (25% N) and urea (46% N), single treatments of leaf spraying of nano Mo (5%), Nano B (9%), nano-binary combinations (Mo+B) and (U+ Nano Mo), (U+Nano B), Nano (N+Mo), Nano (N+B), and tricombination treatments of (U+Mo+B), Nano (N+Mo+B) additional to the control treatment. Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) and one way simple experiment with three replicates. Fertilizers were applied at levels of 40 liters h-1 of Nano-N fertilizer (25% N) and 300 kg h-1 urea fertilizer (46% N). They were sprayed early in the morning after (40) days after planting four times. Two weeks is the period between an application and another according to the recommendation of (1) kg h-1 nano-fertilizer of (B) and (500) g h-1 of Mo. Fertilizers were injected and sprayed at (10, 20, 30 and 40)% of the total amount of the fertilizer were applied as the first, second, third and fourth applications, respectively. Some growth traits were tested including the chlorophyll content in the leaves, the total dry vegetative yild, the soft tubers yield, and the biological yield, proteins and ascorbic acid yield compared to the control (spray water only). The results of the Duncan test showed a significant increase in most of the studied traits of nano-tricombination (N+Mo+B) in the fresh tubers yield, dry vegetative yield , the biological yield, starch yield ,the total protein and ascorbic yield (37.53, 1.799, 8.138,4.152 , 481.3and 653.8 meg ha-1) respectively .compare to control (21.58 , 0.890, 4.463 ,2.323 , 366.1 and 215.5 meg ha-1) respectively.

BIO-INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF POLYPHENOL EXTRACTS OF ANVILLEA RADIATA AGAINST CEREAL APHID RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 264-270

To reduce the abusive apply of artificial organic pesticides with discernment, biodegradable bio-pesticides origin from plants were used as an alternative phytosanitary method against crop pests. This experimentation allowed testing in vitro the bio-insecticidal activity of Anvillea radiata Coss and Dur (Asteraceae), endemic plant from the southeastern Algeria, against the cereal aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus, 1758). Three concentrations were tested (D1= 5mg/ml, D2= 2.5mg/ml and D3= 1.25mg/ml) with the butanolic and chloroformic extracts. The results showed a mortality rate of R. padi varying significantly by treatment and concentration according to the tested substances. The quantitative analysis of the two extracts shows that the crude butanolic extract is rich in polyphenols (348.935±7.456 μg EAG/mg MS) compared to the crude chloroformic extract (56.754±0.982 μg EAG/mg MS). Samely to the insecticidal effect tested, the concentration of 5 mg/ml presented an important insecticidal activity with the butanolic extract (62%) higher than the chloroformic extract (26%). Also, the lethal doses (LC50) of the crude butanolic extract were estimated by 23.07 mg/ml, 6.71 mg/ml and 5.70 mg/ml respectively after 24, 48 and 72hours of the treatment.

ESTIMATION OF CONSUMPTIVE USE OF POTATO CROP PIANTED UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM BY USING SWRT TECHNOLOGY

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 271-282

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the College of Agriculture / University of Wasit, located on longitude 45o 50o 33.5o East and latitude 32o 29o 49.8o North, in Spring season of the agricultural season 2019, in order to estimate the water consumption of potato crop using SWRT technology and under the drip irrigation system. The experiment was designed according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)
with three replications and four treatments that include of the SWRT treatment (the use of plastic films under the plant root area in an engineering style), and the treatment of vegetal fertilizer (using Petmos), organic fertilizer (sheep manure), and the control treatment . Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) var. Burin was planted for spring season on 10/2/2019 at the soil depth of 5-10 cm.
The highest reference water consumption for the potato crop during the season was calculated by Najeeb Kharufa, which was 663.03 mm. The highest actual water consumption for the potato crop during the season for the control treatment was 410.1 mm. The results showed increase in the values of the crop coefficient (Kc) in the stages of tubers formation and tubers filling stage as compared to the vegetative and ripening stages, ranged from 1.37-1.92 for the two stages of tubers formation and tubers filling. The SWRT treatment gave the highest water use efficiency during the season, was 3.46 kg m-3 .

EFFECT OF USING SWRT TECHNOLOGY ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTES OF SOIL PLANTED WITH POTATO CROP UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 283-292

field experiment was carried out in the field of College of Agriculture / University of Wasit, located on longitude 45o 50o33.5o East and latitude 32o 29o 49.8o North, in the spring agricultural season 2019. The experiment was designed according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replication and four treatments that include each of the SWRT treatment (use of plastic films under plant root area in an engineering style) treatment of vegetal fertilizer (using Petmos), organic fertilizer (sheep manure), and control treatment. The bulk density values of soil profile for the season increased compared to their values before planting. It is noticed that the values of bulk density of soil increased with depth, ranging between 1.22 - 1.27 Mg m-3 for SWRT treatment and between 1.28 - 1.31 Mg m-3 for plant fertilizer treatment and between 1.22 - 1.32 Mg m-3 for animal manure treatment and between 1.29-1.34 Mg m-3 for control treatment. The values of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil decreased with depth after the end of the season ranged between 0.41-0.47 cm / hour for SWRT treatment and between 0.21 -0.24 cm / hour for petmos treatment and between 0.14-0.2 cm / hour for animal manure treatment and between 0.17-0.2 cm / hour for control treatment. The rate of infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration decreased for all treatments after the end of potato growth season compared to their value before planting, and the SWRT treatment gave the highest values compared to the rest treatments.

Distribution of different forms of phosphorus in calcareous soils from middle and south of Iraq

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 293-303

A survey of the chemical way to determine the amount of different phosphorus forms in calcareous soils was carried out on 22 calcareous soils fertilized for many years with phosphate fertilizers from central and southern Iraq. Extraction methods were developed by combining the technique of individual traditional methods of different forms with sequentially extraction technology. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm) horizons. Forms of soluble, ready available, organic and total phosphorus were extracted independently and in addition to the successive extraction were carried out according to Jiang and Gu (1989) method. The amount of soluble and available phosphorus extracted were low and ranged from 0.17 to 2.12 mg kg-1 and 7.28 and 34.3 mg kg-1 respectively. Organic phosphorus was medium and the values ranged 30.9 and 93.1 mg kg-1 while the total phosphorus content was high and the values ranged between 206.9 and 570.6 mg kg-1. The quantities of phosphorus extracted sequentially by chemical extracts and the possibility of diagnosing different forms of phosphorus associated with calcium Ca2-P, Ca8-P and Ca10-P (apatite) in addition to P associated with OM and free iron and aluminum oxides. The average values of Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Fe-P and occluded (O-P) extracted were nearly similar and the values were 20.47, 25.28, 25.4, and 26.23 mg kg-1 respectively while the Ca10-P was much higher (194.54 mg kg-1) than the other forms.