Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

livestock and poultry

Role of Some Inducing Additives in in vitro Maturation Environment of Farm Animal's Oocytes: Status Evaluation

Omar Mardenli; mahdi salih; Hadi Awad Hassooni; Halil İbrahim Çetinkaya; Ghassan Al-Shammas

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 111-123
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133656.1039

This review focused on highlighting the importance of the biochemical role of some additives that have a stimulating impact on in vitro maturation (IVM) of farm animal oocytes. The supportive role that these additives played has led to a noticeable increase in embryos yields. Nevertheless, there are some considerations that must be taken into account for the process of producing embryos in vitro to function optimally. Among the hormones, the famous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin hormone (CG)), estradiol and growth hormone (GH) occupied a wide area in IVM, but the usage of these hormones still limited to specific concentrations as the increase in their concentrations did not give the desired effect. Due to the historical popularity and the primary role of cysteamine as an antioxidant agent, its usage has increased recently. However, this usage has also remained limited to specific concentrations, as are hormones. Besides, cysteamine was an important reason for obtaining high rates of embryos in the blastocyst stage. Conversely, there was a reservation in the use of follicular fluid (FF) and fetal calf serum (FCS). Although these two elements are rich in hormones, proteins, lipids and various growth factors, FF contains factors that inhibit the maturation of oocytes. Moreover, FCS has a negative role in the quality of resulted embryos because of the high levels of lipids (triglycerides).

Comparison the Effect of Bromelain and Papain Enzymes on Fish Food which Prepared from Poultry Waste Powder on Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) Growth Performance

nuha hameed albassam

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133119.1031

The study was conducted in the Fish Laboratory / College of Agriculture / University of Tikrit to study the effect of poultry waste powder supplemented with the Bromelain and Papain enzymes at rates of 2% and 3% on growth rates, 60 fish were randomly distributed with two replicates for each treatment, 6 fish for each replicate into 10 aquaria. The fish feed containing poultry droppings powder were prepared and chemical analyzes were conducted and they were used to feed common carp fish Cyprinus Carpio L. Treatment T3 recorded the highest weight gain of 91.49 g, while it decreased in treatment T2 to 69.85 g. The relative growth rate of treatment T3: 54.62% increased, and the specific growth of 0.30 g / day, and the efficiency of food conversion decreased in treatment T4: 28.30% compared with the other treatments. Significant differences were recorded at the level (P≤0.05) between the different experimental treatments, and most of the treatments covered the common carp requirements of essential amino acids.

The Growth Parameters Response of Broiler Chicks Fed Partial replacement of Rice Bran for the Yellow Corn

Israa S. Al-Tayyar; Tariq Salah Almrsomi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 93-97
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133555.1038

Not long ago, Researchers try to find a suitable alternative source from the cereal by-product instead of yellow corn. Today there is a global shortage in cereal production, so to archive goals to make less dependent on regular cereals which used in human feeding we have to examine using unusual feed staff like Rice bran.  Our experiment was carried out in poultry farm, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture/ University of Kufa to explore the broiler productive performance of Rose 308 fed rice bran diets with partly replacement of Yellow Corn. 225 chicks were used in our study by distributing them into 5 treatments as trails: (T1) control (50% yellow corn), T2, T3 substituted 5, 7.5 % of raw rice bran by yellow corn respectively, T4, T5 substituted 5, 7.5 % of Rice bran (treated with Ascorbic acid) by yellow corn. Our results show that: No significant differences in marketing live body weight, body weight gain, accumulative feed consumption and accumulative feed conversion ratio for experimental groups fed diet supplementing by Raw Rice bran or preserved by Ascorbic acid with control group, which main feeding broiler by rice bran diets has enhanced growth performance in broiler chicken. Our indication is substitution of 5 or 7.5 % rice bran with yellow corn had no bad effect on broiler performance.

Effect Adding Different Levels of Lemongrass Leaves Powder to the Dietary on the Meat Traits of Broilers

Mokhalad Hasan

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 30-34
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132615.1023

This study was conducted in broiler field / college of Agriculture/ Tikrit University during 9-4 to 14-5-2019 to know the effect of adding lemongrass leaves powder to the dietary on meats traits of broilers. 135 chicks Ross-308 were distributed randomly to three treatments, each treatment divided into three replicates (15 birds per replicate). T1 was standard treatment; T2 and T3 were added 1g and 2g of lemongrass per one kg of diet, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in T2 compared with other treatments in cooking loss and water holding capacity, otherwise, T2 increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the thawing loss compared with T1, the treatments did not differ significantly in the dripping loss. T2 and T3 increased significantly in protein percentage compared with T1, while these treatments were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) compared with T1 in the fat and moisture percentages, the per cent of meat ash did not differ significantly among treatments. The Peroxide Value, Thiobarbituric acid and Free Fatty Acids significantly increased (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. The percentage of all fatty acids like linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic and linolenic increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. We conclude from this study that adding lemongrass powder to broiler diets improved most of the physical and chemical traits of meat.

Impact of Cryopreservation Techniques on Embryos Viability and Normality in Awassi Sheeps

Raed Kawkab Al – Muhja

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133789.1043

This study was  conducted to show the effect of three different techniques of embryo freezing on the vitality and percentage of normal embryos. This research was carried out Between December 2020 and June 2021, in the Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproduction at Al-Nahrain  University . Ovaries were  obtained from ewes that were slaughtered in a Shulla local slaughterhouse. 75 ovaries were obtained and randomly divided into three groups in this study. Oocytes were extracted from the ovaries using an aspiration procedure, followed by in vitro maturation, fertilization, early embryonic development, then vitrification, Rapid cryopreservation, slow cryopreservation, and finally vital tests and natural embryos. The nappy vitrification process was determined to be the best for cryopreservation of embryos in this investigation.  

A Review of The Current Status of Migratory Wild Birds in Iraq and Syria

mahdi salih; Omar Mardenli; Tariq Salah Fathi Almrsomi; Mohammed Rasoul Mahdi Jasim

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 131-142
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.133702.1041

Iraq and Syria are among the countries that are frequented by wild birds in great numbers and species due to the abundance of water, green spaces, moderate climate in winter and the lack of predators. The two countries fall under the migration line of birds that stretches between East Asia and East Africa. The results of the survey, which were conducted nearly twenty years ago, indicated that there are at least 400 species of migratory birds coming to Iraq and Syria (The majority are from the Accipitres (Accipitridae) and passerines (Passeriformes)). In Iraq, the marshes (Al-Ahwar) are inhabited by species of birds that are rare in other parts of the world like the Iraq Babbler (Turdoides squamiceps) and the rocking reed of Basra (Acrocephalus griseldis). The rare endangered Namaqua Dove (Oena Capensis) was seen in the Syrian Badia.  Recently, the status of the deputed birds has decreased in terms of numbers and species due to a set of reasons, the most important of which is the phenomenon of over-hunting, which has negatively affected the numbers of birds, especially birds that are threatened with extinction and included in the red list such as the Ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca) and the Eurasian teal (Anas Crecca). The demographic fluctuation and war conditions have led to the reluctance of some species to come to Iraq and Syria and change the course of their migration to other places. The emergence of some non-traditional methods of hunting by bird hunters, such as the establishment of artificial waterbodies to attract waterfowl, led to an unprecedented decline in the numbers of these birds. The lack of legal oversight, lack of accountability, and the tendency of bird hunters to hunt in uncontrolled areas increased the great damage to wild birds in particular and to wildlife in general.

Effect of Different Proportions of Probiotics on Immunological Blood Parameters of Babcock Laying Hens Strain

Moustafa Abed-Almajeed; mahdi salih; Omar Mardenli; Faez Saleh Mohammad; Ammar subhy Shaker; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani; Asmaa Mohammed D. K

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170204

The research was conducted at the Research Center of Agriculture Faculty of the University of Aleppo. 240 chickens of Babcock B300 strain were used and distributed randomly from day one into four independent groups. Each group included 60 birds distributed into three replicates (20 birds). The control group (A group) was fed a balanced standard feed mixture (1-18 weeks) without additives, while lactic acid bacillus was added to treatments groups according to three levels (50 mg/kg feed; B group, 100 mg/kg feed; C group and 150 mg/kg feed; D group). Haematological analyzes were performed over two- time intervals (1-21 weeks and 22-32 weeks). In the first time interval, results showed that a rise in blood albumin (P<0.001) was also observed in C and D groups compared to the A group. The rates of blood globulin increased (P<0.02) in the D group compared with the rest of the groups. No significant differences were noticed across the various groups for the total number of white blood cells and lymphocytes rates. In the second time interval (productive stage), significant differences (P<0.01) were noticed across the various groups in the percentages of the total protein (the highest value was 4.75 g/dl; B group) and serum albumin (the highest value was 3.26 g/dl; D group). It is concluded from the current study that the addition of probiotics to the mixtures of laying hens had a significant improvement in the immune parameters in the blood.

Effect of Hatching Eggs Storage and Maternal Age on Internal Egg Characteristics

mahdi salih; Ammar subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 150-157
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170249

The current review showed that storing eggs for a period of more than 7 days affects the quality, the  internal characteristics of the eggs and the extent of survival of the embryo during the periods of egg storage and subsequent incubation. Besides, the dam age also has an effect that interferes with the length of the storage period. Increasing the length of storage period causes a negative decrease in the egg characteristics of old breeders (breeders<53 weeks of age) and young ones. The decrease is more pronounced in some of the characteristics of the eggs of small flocks compared to the older ones, such as the increase in the pH of albumin, as well as the morphological changes of the embryo that increase with the increase in the length of the storage period, but this increase is more pronounced in the younger flocks than in the larger ones. Storing the ggs for a short period (<7 days) does not reduce the hatching rate of the eggs of young breeders, this may be due to the lack of fluidity of the albumin and the availability of oxygen to the embryo. Increasing the length of storage period affects negativelythe hatched chicks charactoristics ( young and old broodstock). The interaction between length of egg storage and the age of the breeders on the characteristics of hatched chicks is not sufficiently clear. It can be concluded from this study that storing eggs for a short period improves the hatchability rate of the of young mothers, not of old ones.The negative effect of prolonged egg storage has less effect on the eggs of young breeders than eggs of older ones. The conditions of egg storage have an important effect on the characteristics of hatching and hatched chicks when storing eggs for a long time.