Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Main Subjects : Pollution


Quantity, Quality and Cost of Household Waste in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate

Ammar Subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170227

In the current stage is to calculate the daily generated quantities of solid household waste, as well as to indicate the annual amounts spent on the stages of collection, transportation and landfilling of this waste, as well as to identify the practical reality of the processes and stages of solid household waste management followed by the municipal institutions of the governorate to indicate the possibility of establishing an investment project Dedicated to recycling plastic, paper and glass materials and benefiting from organic materials as fertilizers for the soil or for energy production, with the aim of activating sustainable development in the governorate.

Benefits and Challenges of Waste Recycling, a Field Study in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate

Ammar Subhy Shaker; Faez Saleh Mohammed; Hawraa G.T.Al-Shebani

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 85-108
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.170228

Previous studies have resulted in many different countries and geographical regions in weather, terrain and activity The industrial sector to verify the extent to which the countries of the year benefit from recycling waste (1), The most important benefit is to reduce the volume and quantity The accumulated waste in the landfills that narrowed it down, which poses a threat to health and the environment, in addition to harming human senses and making use of basic materials suitable for industry, was doomed to be lost without benefit, with some remaining, such as glass and aluminum For long periods without decomposing or turning into part of the soil . And avoid the disposal of some of them, such as car oils And old tires in ways that lead to environmental pollution . What encourages countries to recycle some wastes such as glass, aluminum(2), wood and tires is that they are economically viable operations to the extent that many private companies compete in recycling them with the aim of profit due to the cost, energy and manufacturing requirements they provide without the need for huge capital or government support. By examining the possibility of applying waste recycling in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce the amount and volume of waste in it, it was not hidden from the economic feasibility of recycling wood waste, aluminum, glass, car oils and old tires even on a small scale, and that recycling operations will inevitably lead to a good economic recovery without the need for the state to bear a part of costs . As for household waste from aluminum cans and glass bottles(3), it needs recycling centers to collect, sort and prepare materials extracted from waste for recycling factories, and it also requires an expansion in the manufacturing process . This is also economically feasible, but it needs support from the state, local government, social institutions, and acceptance from the people. .In the case of matter, since it has a law that preserves it, it is transformed from materials that people benefit from and benefit from, even if he consumes them, they turn into waste or other chemical forms that are useless . However, if a person realizes the composition of waste, he will be able to recover the useful from it and use it again . Thus, this study provides results for the extent to which the city benefits from recycling industrial waste . The study focuses on recycled waste; Like:
-Wood : wood and sawdust waste from carpentry shops and furniture factories •
-Aluminum : aluminum waste from door and window workshops •
-Oils : used car oils •
-Tires : old tires •
-Glass : leftover glass from glass shops, etc(4) •
The research answers some questions; Including : What are the quantities of this industrial waste in the city of Diwaniyah? What is the method that is currently being disposed of? Is there really a benefit from recycling waste? • Is the process of recycling economically viable(3); Or does the state bear part of its costs? Can the recycling process be applied in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce?  the amount and volume of waste there, or not The research begins with a presentation of the problem of the accumulated waste from industrial activity and then turns to a presentation of ways to dispose of waste that accumulates very quickly in contemporary society . The research also presents details of a specific waste recycling process, namely wood, aluminum, and car waste from oils, tires, and glass . After that, the research deals with discussing the extent of benefiting from waste recycling at the present time, and the economic feasibility of recycling, including the entities funding the recycling process . The report concludes by addressing the issue of the possibility of applying the recycling process in the city of Diwaniyah to reduce the amount and volume of waste(5).

Evaluation of The Predatory Efficiency of Orius Albidipennis Reuter for Two Prey Species Myzus Persicae (Sulzer) and Thrips Tabaci Lind. on The Carrot Plant in Laboratory

Anmar Razak Khamis; Alaa Sabeeh Jabbar

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168286

The study aimed to investigate the effect of different densities of M.persicae and T. tabaci on the predatory ability of the predator O. albidipennis and determine the preference for one of the two prey, in addition to assessing the in vitro predator's efficiency in reducing the number of aphids on the carrot plant. The results indicated that the rates of predated adult and nymph thrips were significantly higher than that of predated aphids. The highest rate of predation for nymphs and adults thrips was 33.2 and 25 preys per day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container, while the highest rate of predation of adults and nymphs of aphids was 19 and 13.2prey/day, respectively, at a density of 60prey/container. The food preference experiment showed that the adults of the predator O. albidipennis feed on the immature stages thrips and aphids when introduced together and have no clear preference for one of the prey. The results of evaluating the efficiency of predator adults on reducing different densities of aphids showed that the predator was effectively able to reduce the population increase of aphids when the insect densities were 10, 20 or 30 insect. however, the predator was not effective when introduced to aphids at starting density of 40, no significant difference was found due to predator presence or absence as the aphids population density were 118.4 and 135.2 insects/cage after four days, respectively.

Study of Water Quality of Tigris River Upstream Al-Kut Barrage

Jamal Naser Abedalrahman; Afnan Nema Mnaty

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 10-13
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168285

The study was conducted on the water quality of Tigris River in upstream of AL-Kut Barrage during the period of August 2018 to June 2019. Six vertical sections have been selected upstream of Al-Kut Barrage. The distance between one section to another was 100 m, the first section begins at 350 m from the origin of Barrage. The result showed that the values of cadmium ion were 0.0346 ug/L to 0.0707 ug/L. The Lead values of the Tigris River water samples were 4.29 ug /L to 8.33 ug /L. The values of nickel ion have been ranged between 7.59 ug/L to 9.75 ug/L. Zinc ions have been recorded 53.5 ug /L to 72.1 ug /L. The concentration of above ions was situated within Iraqi and world Health organization (WHO) criterions that relating with propriety of water of Tigris River for drinking and irrigation.

Study of Sediments Accumulated of Tigris River in Al-Kut Barrage and Their Effect on Engineering Criteria of River Sections

Afnan Nema Mnaty; Jamal Naser Abedalrahman

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168284

The study was conducted on the Tigris River, in front of the Al-Kut Barrage. The study period continued (11 months), where six vertical sections were chosen upstream of Kut Barrage, the distance between one section to another was 100 m. The first section begins at 350 m from the front of Barrage. The result showed that variation in the discharge of Tigris River in  upstream of Kut Barrage during the months of the study period, and it is noticed that the values of the discharge of the studied sections ranged from 117.35 m3/sec  to 542.71 m3/sec, and the lowest average value of  discharge was 217.84 m3/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of discharge was 411.19 m3/sec on February 2019. The values of velocity of the current water of the studied sections ranged from 0.121 m/sec to 0.567 m/sec, and the lowest value of velocity was 0.225 m/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of velocity was 0.402 m/sec on April 2019. The flow area of Tigris River ranged from 295.6 m2 to 2080. 8 m2 during the period of study. The depth of water levels of Tigris River ranged from 1.36m to 4.68 m, the area of accumulated sediments upstream of Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 1069.2m2 to 2854. 4 m2 during the period of study. The volume of the accumulated sediments upstream Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 139000m3 to 257740m3.

MEASURING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF HONEY PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE SEASON 2018-2019

Sura Sa’il Abd; Muna Abdukkadir Ahmad; Zwayid Fathi Abd

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 335-342
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167477

This study aimed at identifying the most important factors affecting bee honey production, by performing a comparative study for the economic efficiency and the technical efficiency, data were obtained from field sources in light of a random sample constituted a percentage of 5% taken from honey producers from 51 apiaries at the season of 2018- 2019. The research, in estimating economic efficiency and dividing its components into technical and allocative efficiencies, adopted the data envelopment analysis using the model of entry orientation in light of fixed and variable returns in checking the technical efficiency, and in light of variable capacity return  in checking allocative efficiency and cost efficiency, where we note that technical efficiency varied between (0.1-1) with an average of 27%, i.e. the sample is capable of increasing its production by 73% to reach the optimal volume, whereas we note that 96.3% of beekeepers are working with increasing capacity return. The technical efficiency, in light of the variation in capacity return, has varied between 0.5 minimum and 1 maximum with an average of 0.60, and that the apiaries which fell on the possible production curve were 12%. The economic efficiency on the other hand, reached an average of 0.46 and that means the bee breeding farms could achieve the same production level in light of costs reduction of 54%, i.e. capable of producing the current amount using only 46% of the economic resources, and this is attributed to the inadequacy of the allocative efficiency and the improper use of resources. The study recommended the use of amounts that realize the economic efficiency and, the redistribution of resources in a way that guaranties achieving the same level of production or more in light of costs reduction.

Measurement of Some Citrus Species Content From Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri; Raed S. Suhail; Zahraa S. Mahdi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 385-388
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167499

The aim of this study was to measure content of total flavonoids for most types of citrus cultivated in Iraq as well as the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant was highest in orange peels [5129] micromole Fe⁺² / gm dry matter. Citrus peels and seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants that can be used both in the medical and commercial fields .