Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Main Subjects : Soil Sciences


Study of Sediments Accumulated of Tigris River in Al-Kut Barrage and Their Effect on Engineering Criteria of River Sections

Afnan Nema Mnaty; Jamal Naser Abedalrahman

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168284

The study was conducted on the Tigris River, in front of the Al-Kut Barrage. The study period continued (11 months), where six vertical sections were chosen upstream of Kut Barrage, the distance between one section to another was 100 m. The first section begins at 350 m from the front of Barrage. The result showed that variation in the discharge of Tigris River in  upstream of Kut Barrage during the months of the study period, and it is noticed that the values of the discharge of the studied sections ranged from 117.35 m3/sec  to 542.71 m3/sec, and the lowest average value of  discharge was 217.84 m3/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of discharge was 411.19 m3/sec on February 2019. The values of velocity of the current water of the studied sections ranged from 0.121 m/sec to 0.567 m/sec, and the lowest value of velocity was 0.225 m/sec on August 2018, and the high average value of velocity was 0.402 m/sec on April 2019. The flow area of Tigris River ranged from 295.6 m2 to 2080. 8 m2 during the period of study. The depth of water levels of Tigris River ranged from 1.36m to 4.68 m, the area of accumulated sediments upstream of Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 1069.2m2 to 2854. 4 m2 during the period of study. The volume of the accumulated sediments upstream Al-Kut Barrage ranged from 139000m3 to 257740m3.

Study of Water Quality of Tigris River Upstream Al-Kut Barrage

Jamal Naser Abedalrahman; Afnan Nema Mnaty

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 10-13
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168285

The study was conducted on the water quality of Tigris River in upstream of AL-Kut Barrage during the period of August 2018 to June 2019. Six vertical sections have been selected upstream of Al-Kut Barrage. The distance between one section to another was 100 m, the first section begins at 350 m from the origin of Barrage. The result showed that the values of cadmium ion were 0.0346 ug/L to 0.0707 ug/L. The Lead values of the Tigris River water samples were 4.29 ug /L to 8.33 ug /L. The values of nickel ion have been ranged between 7.59 ug/L to 9.75 ug/L. Zinc ions have been recorded 53.5 ug /L to 72.1 ug /L. The concentration of above ions was situated within Iraqi and world Health organization (WHO) criterions that relating with propriety of water of Tigris River for drinking and irrigation.

The Impact of Biological Inoculation on Zea Mays L. growth, Protein Content, and Iron Availability Under Different Levels of Water Stress

Tabarak Rahim Shuppar; Jawad Abdul kadhem

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 72-80
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2021.168290

This study aims to investigate the effect of biological inoculation with Azotobacter chrococcum and Glomus mosseae on the growth and yield of Zea mays L., the variety of Baghdad 3 under different levels of water stress. A field experiment was carried out in the fall season of 2020 in a private farm in the Diwaniyah Governorate-Afak district. According to the Randomized Complete Block Design R.C.B.D, the experiment was designed with three replications, and the treatment was distributed randomly. Three levels of irrigation were used in the experiment (I4 irrigation every four days, I7 irrigation every seven days,  I10 irrigation every ten days) and the levels of inoculation (B1 inoculation with A-chrococcum and B0 not inoculating with bacteria) and ( F1 inoculating with G-mosseae and F0 non-inoculation) and ( B1F1 interaction between fungus and bacteria). The means were compared using the L.S.D. Test at a 5% significance level. The results present that the treatments inoculated with fungi or bacteria or both, and for a seven-day irrigation period, significantly increased the values ​​of the traits (plant height, dry weight of the vegetative part, length of corn cob, protein percentage, soil content of available iron during the flowering and end of season periods). They had the highest values ​​ 358, 85.71, 25.63, 12.23, 0.5423, and 0.4873 cm plant-1, respectively, compared to the treatments (control + irrigation every ten days) as they resulted in 165, 32.87, 9.07, 6.75, 0.3133, and 0.2823 cm plant-1, respectively.

Comparison Between Groundwater Quality at North East and South West of Erbil Governorate for Irrigation Using Some Global Systems and Principal Component Analysis

Dania Mohammed Danish Aladdin Sajadi; Akram Othman Esmail

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 308-324
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167475

This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
 

Study The Thermal Properties of The Soil Under Systems Irrigation and Mulching Different

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167503

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, with the aim of studying thermal properties under different irrigation and mulching systems. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The thermal properties were estimated using equations (thermal conductivity, heat flow, volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusion), the results showed the following:

It is noticed that superiority of the treatment of mulching with black nylon at the beginning and end of the season by obtaining the highest thermal conductivity of the soil, followed by the treatment of straw and fronds compared to the treatment without mulching, as it reached at the beginning of the season 0.830, 0.769, and 0.752 W∙m−1∙K respectively, and reached at the end of the season 0.772, 0.813, and 0.834 W∙m−1∙K respectively, while the thermal conductivity of the control was 0.665, 0.746 W∙m−1∙K at the beginning and end of the season respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in the thermal conductivity values at the beginning and the end of the season, reaching 0.733 and 0.775 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the beginning of the season and 0.785 and 0.797 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the end of the season.
The black nylon mulch treatment outperformed the rest of the treatments at the beginning of the season, followed by the non-mulched treatment, then the frond mulching and straw mulching treatment by obtaining the highest heat flux rate of 2.96, 3.30, 4.47 and 6.80 W/m2, respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method by obtaining the highest heat flux at the beginning of the season, reaching 5.99, and 2.77 W/m2, respectively, but the opposite happened at the end of the season where the furrow irrigation method outperformed the basin irrigation method, reaching 3.99, and 3.85 W/ m2 respectively.
The mulching treatment with black nylon exceeded by obtaining the highest values of volumetric heat capacity, then followed by the treatment of mulching with straw and fronds, and then treatment without mulching at the beginning and end of the growing season, reaching 1.61, 1.53, 1.49, and 1.39 MJ / m3 respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.52, 1.54, 1.54 and 1.63 respectively at the end of the season.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in that it obtained the highest values of volumetric heat capacity which were 1.48 and 1.53 MJ / m3.K respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.57 and 1.54 MJ / m3.K respectively at the end of the season.
The treatment of mulching with black nylon outperformed by obtaining the highest value of thermal diffusivity, followed by the treatment of mulching with fronds and straw, compared to a treatment without mulching at the beginning of the season, which amounted to 5.18x10-7, 5.06x10-7, 5.01x10-7, and 4.79x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.
The basin irrigation method achieved the highest rate of thermal diffusivity compared with the furrow irrigation method at the beginning of the growing season, reaching 5.09 x10-7, and 4.94x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.

Study The Effect of Soil Mulching and Irrigation Systems on Some Physical Properties of The Soil and Growth and Yield of Maize

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 426-441
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167504

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, the soil texture was Sandy loam, to study the effect of types of mulching and irrigation systems on some physical properties of soil, growth and yield of maize. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The physical properties of the study treatments were measured before planting, mid-season and at the end of the season, which included bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil temperature. The growth characters of the maize were measured at 100% flowering, which include plant height, leaf area, weight of 500 grains, total yield, and water use efficiency. The most important results obtained can be summarized as follows:

The bulk density values at the beginning of the season were not significantly affected by soil mulching, as the values of bulk density rates were 1.23, 1.23, 1.23 μg m-3 for control, frond, and black nylon mulching compared to their pre-planting values 1.23 μg m-3. Whereas, there were significant differences in the mid-season in the bulk density values of the control treatment, as they reached 1.24 μg m-3. While the mulching of fronds and black nylon did not significantly affect the values of bulk density in the middle of the season compared with the values before planting. While it is evident that there was a significant effect mulching on the values of the bulk density of the control, frond, and black nylon mulching at the end of the season, which amounted to 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26 μg m-3, respectively, compared to their values before planting. Also, it is noticed that the values of the bulk density rates of straw mulching treatment decreased at the beginning, middle and end of the season, as the values were 1.21, 1.22, and 1.22 μg m-3, respectively, compared with their value before planting.
There was no significant effect of the two irrigation methods on the bulk density values at the beginning, middle and end of the season compared with the bulk density values before planting.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on water conductivity, as the values of the water conductivity decreased compared to their values before planting, and became 2.68 x 10-3, 2.69 x 10-3, and 2.73 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for control, fronds, and nylon, respectively. While the treatment of straw mulching, the water conductivity values increased at the end of the season compared to their values before planting.
The presence of the effect of the irrigation method on water conductivity, and led to a decrease in the values of the water conductivity compared to its values before planting, as it reached 2.76 x10-3 - 2.75 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for the two irrigation treatments in basin and furrow, respectively.
A slight decrease in the temperature in the middle of the season during the months of September and October, and the decline continued until the end of the season in the month of November. The highest temperatures were recorded for the treatment mulched with black nylon and control, followed by the palm fronds and the lowest temperature for the straw mulch treatment. The irrigation method did not affect soil temperature during the crop growth stages.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on plant height, the mean values of plant height were 184.05, 169.25, 149.6, 177.5 cm for control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the absence of a significant effect of the irrigation method on plant height, the averages of the two methods of irrigation of basins and furrows were 169.95 and 170.25 cm, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the leaf area (4205, 5381, 4385, 3564 cm2 for straw, frond, control, and nylon mulching respectively. as well as, the absence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the leaf area.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the grain yield, reaching 5260, 4028, 3520, and 4625 kg ha-1 for control, straw, fronds, and nylon mulching, respectively. As well as significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the grain yield, reaching 4014,4703 kg ha-1 for the treatment of irrigation of basins and furrows, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for weight of 500 grains (91.1, 103.8, 113.9, 99.8 gm for the control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the presence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the weight of 500 grains, which amounted to 105.4 98.8 gm for irrigation with basins and furrows respectively.
Mulching soil surface with straw and fronds increased water use efficiency compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.104, 0.849, and 0.708 kg m-3, respectively. There were also no significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the water use efficiency.