Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Main Subjects : Basic agriculture sciences


Studying Some The Functional Properties of Tamarind Tamarindus indica L. Mucilage

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 304-307
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167474

The present study aimed to extract the mucilage from Tamarind Tamarindus indica L and studying some the functional properties . The values of solubility , water binding capacity and viscosity for tamarind seed mucilage were:  87.4 , 17.54 and 13.7 respectively . The tamarind seed mucilage showed varied oil binding capacity from 0.42- 0.73 ( g oil / g dry mucilage ) due to the type of oil used . The results showed a higher emulsification stability from tamarind seed mucilage. This results indicated the ability of using tamarind seed mucilage as stabilizer and emulsifier in food industry .

Comparison Between Groundwater Quality at North East and South West of Erbil Governorate for Irrigation Using Some Global Systems and Principal Component Analysis

Dania Mohammed Danish Aladdin Sajadi; Akram Othman Esmail

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 308-324
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167475

This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
 

The Effects of Biological and Chemical Agents on the Management of Main Pests in Tomato Plant

Sanaa S. Abbas; Alaa J. Subaih; Yahya A. Saleh

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 325-334
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167476

This laboratory study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of two biological agents Beauveria bassiana (Bals) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Kursaki) and four chemical pesticides Levo 2.4 SL, Aster 20 SL, Difuse 450 SC, and Matrixine Plus EC on four important main pests that infect tomato plants. The pests studied were whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Meyrick Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Sulzer Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Koch Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetraanychidae). The results show that the pesticide Matrixine Plus recorded the highest average of mortality of both larval and adult stages of all four pests. The average of mortality for adults and larvae of whitefly were 96.67% and 86.67% respectively. The average of mortality for adults and larvae of Meyrick was 93.33% for both stages, while the percentages for adults and larvae of Sulzer and Kotch were 96.67% respectively after seven days of exposure. The lowest averages of mortality were recorded for Antario on whitefly adults and for Difuse on whitefly (both (16.67%). Difuse caused the lowest average of mortality (26.67%) on Meyrick adults, whereas Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 20% on Meyrick larvae. The results show also that Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 23.33% on adults and 16.67% on larvae. Similarly, Difuse was recorded the lowest average of 20% on adults while Antario caused the lowest average of mortality of 26.67% on larvae after one day of treatment.

MEASURING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF HONEY PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE SEASON 2018-2019

Sura Sa’il Abd; Muna Abdukkadir Ahmad; Zwayid Fathi Abd

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 335-342
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167477

This study aimed at identifying the most important factors affecting bee honey production, by performing a comparative study for the economic efficiency and the technical efficiency, data were obtained from field sources in light of a random sample constituted a percentage of 5% taken from honey producers from 51 apiaries at the season of 2018- 2019. The research, in estimating economic efficiency and dividing its components into technical and allocative efficiencies, adopted the data envelopment analysis using the model of entry orientation in light of fixed and variable returns in checking the technical efficiency, and in light of variable capacity return  in checking allocative efficiency and cost efficiency, where we note that technical efficiency varied between (0.1-1) with an average of 27%, i.e. the sample is capable of increasing its production by 73% to reach the optimal volume, whereas we note that 96.3% of beekeepers are working with increasing capacity return. The technical efficiency, in light of the variation in capacity return, has varied between 0.5 minimum and 1 maximum with an average of 0.60, and that the apiaries which fell on the possible production curve were 12%. The economic efficiency on the other hand, reached an average of 0.46 and that means the bee breeding farms could achieve the same production level in light of costs reduction of 54%, i.e. capable of producing the current amount using only 46% of the economic resources, and this is attributed to the inadequacy of the allocative efficiency and the improper use of resources. The study recommended the use of amounts that realize the economic efficiency and, the redistribution of resources in a way that guaranties achieving the same level of production or more in light of costs reduction.

Measurement of Some Citrus Species Content From Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri; Raed S. Suhail; Zahraa S. Mahdi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 385-388
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167499

The aim of this study was to measure content of total flavonoids for most types of citrus cultivated in Iraq as well as the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant was highest in orange peels [5129] micromole Fe⁺² / gm dry matter. Citrus peels and seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants that can be used both in the medical and commercial fields .