Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Main Subjects : Agricultural Mechanization


Theoretical Study to Choose The Appropriate Pumps To Solve The Problem of Low Water Levels of The Iraqi Rivers With The Design of A Floating Pumping Station

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 377-384
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167498

A study was prepared to select the appropriate pumps for pump stations in order to predict the decrease in the level of Iraq's rivers in general and problems in the pumping stations as a result of this decrease in addition the study was prepared to address the problems in the water pumping projects (pumping stations) in 2019 at the University of Baghdad, the study can be applied for all central and subsidiary water pumping projects spread throughout the provinces, note that the study includes the ( introduction of basic data such as the rise of the river level, dimension the location of the pump for the river, the required height for pumping water and the amount of water required to pump (m3/h), the diameter of the pipes to be used, connecting accessories, the number of entrances and exits of the system, check valves etc..). The study also includes the design of a floating pumping station to address the problem and the study also aims to reduce the financial cost in terms of the use of ideal pump set (motor + pump) for river level (upper and lower ) and thus reduce the engine horsepower, i.e. reducing the power of the engine required for operation, in addition to reducing the cost to buy expensive pumps with high horsepower, reducing the sizes and types of pipes used, as well as reducing the connecting accessories, and thus we have solved technical and economic problems at the same time.

EVALUATION OF HETEROCLARIAS QUALITY WITH INCREASED STORAGE TIME USING QUALITY INDEX METHOD (QIM)

Ayeloja Ayodeji Ahmed; Jimoh Wasiu Adeyemi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 389-393
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167500

The quality of Heteroclarias with increased storage time using Quality Index Method (QIM) was evaluated. 140 live samples of Heteroclarias (average weight 230 + 7g) were used for the study. QIM was used to evaluate the key parameters in fish deterioration, twenty semi-trained assessors was used for the sensory evaluation. Data obtained were subjected to appropriate statistical tools using SPSS 16.0 version. Quality Index (QI) of Heteroclarias increases with increased post slaughter time when the fish was left at ambient temperatures (27 + 3°C) indicating decrease in fish quality with time. High correlation of (r=0.993) with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.986) was obtained indicating that 98.6% of the variation in post slaughter time was explained by quality attributes; the regression equation was significant F(9, 130)=1080 (p<0.0001) indicating that it could be used for prediction and estimation of fish quality, the QI used in this study is therefore recommended to be used by relevant agencies for predicting fish quality.
Practical Applications :Fish is highly perishable despite its nutritional value, consumers becoming increasingly interested in the quality of fish they consume and the physical attributes of the fish is very vital for on the spot assessment of fish quality. This study provide quality index that could be used for prediction and estimation of fish quality using sensory evaluation.

OVERALL WATER LOSSES DURING SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN ARID AREA:CASE OF TOUGGOURT - ALGERIA

GHERIANI Sofiane; MEZA Noureddine; BOUTOUTAOU Djamel

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 394-406
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167501

In recent years, the development of agriculture in Algeria Southeast grew rapidly, which increased demand for agricultural products. Since this region has difficult agro-climatic conditions, irrigation seems to be a necessary factor to ensure optimal development and higher agricultural production. Like many irrigation techniques that are widely used, the performance of sprinkler irrigation is significantly affected by these conditions (mainly evaporation) which cause colossal water losses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through the experimental approach, the global losses of water caused by evaporation and wind drift on two irrigated surfaces in the arid zone of Touggourt. Here we propose adequate predictive equations and explore the effect of irrigated area on overall water loss values. These are measured on two blocks (A and B) the rain gauge method. Block A contains four lateral lines while Block B has only two. For both, each lateral line has four sprinklers. The results showed that the overall water losses of block A are about 24.13 to 50.46%, while those of Block B range from 29.52 to 49.5 %.Two obtained models are adopted for both blocks which can be useful tools for determining overall water losses in environmental conditions (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed).Noting that when the irrigated area was larger, the water losses will be lass.

Study The Thermal Properties of The Soil Under Systems Irrigation and Mulching Different

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167503

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, with the aim of studying thermal properties under different irrigation and mulching systems. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The thermal properties were estimated using equations (thermal conductivity, heat flow, volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusion), the results showed the following:

It is noticed that superiority of the treatment of mulching with black nylon at the beginning and end of the season by obtaining the highest thermal conductivity of the soil, followed by the treatment of straw and fronds compared to the treatment without mulching, as it reached at the beginning of the season 0.830, 0.769, and 0.752 W∙m−1∙K respectively, and reached at the end of the season 0.772, 0.813, and 0.834 W∙m−1∙K respectively, while the thermal conductivity of the control was 0.665, 0.746 W∙m−1∙K at the beginning and end of the season respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in the thermal conductivity values at the beginning and the end of the season, reaching 0.733 and 0.775 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the beginning of the season and 0.785 and 0.797 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the end of the season.
The black nylon mulch treatment outperformed the rest of the treatments at the beginning of the season, followed by the non-mulched treatment, then the frond mulching and straw mulching treatment by obtaining the highest heat flux rate of 2.96, 3.30, 4.47 and 6.80 W/m2, respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method by obtaining the highest heat flux at the beginning of the season, reaching 5.99, and 2.77 W/m2, respectively, but the opposite happened at the end of the season where the furrow irrigation method outperformed the basin irrigation method, reaching 3.99, and 3.85 W/ m2 respectively.
The mulching treatment with black nylon exceeded by obtaining the highest values of volumetric heat capacity, then followed by the treatment of mulching with straw and fronds, and then treatment without mulching at the beginning and end of the growing season, reaching 1.61, 1.53, 1.49, and 1.39 MJ / m3 respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.52, 1.54, 1.54 and 1.63 respectively at the end of the season.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in that it obtained the highest values of volumetric heat capacity which were 1.48 and 1.53 MJ / m3.K respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.57 and 1.54 MJ / m3.K respectively at the end of the season.
The treatment of mulching with black nylon outperformed by obtaining the highest value of thermal diffusivity, followed by the treatment of mulching with fronds and straw, compared to a treatment without mulching at the beginning of the season, which amounted to 5.18x10-7, 5.06x10-7, 5.01x10-7, and 4.79x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.
The basin irrigation method achieved the highest rate of thermal diffusivity compared with the furrow irrigation method at the beginning of the growing season, reaching 5.09 x10-7, and 4.94x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.