Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Keywords : soil


Study The Effect of Soil Mulching and Irrigation Systems on Some Physical Properties of The Soil and Growth and Yield of Maize

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 426-441
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167504

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, the soil texture was Sandy loam, to study the effect of types of mulching and irrigation systems on some physical properties of soil, growth and yield of maize. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The physical properties of the study treatments were measured before planting, mid-season and at the end of the season, which included bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil temperature. The growth characters of the maize were measured at 100% flowering, which include plant height, leaf area, weight of 500 grains, total yield, and water use efficiency. The most important results obtained can be summarized as follows:

The bulk density values at the beginning of the season were not significantly affected by soil mulching, as the values of bulk density rates were 1.23, 1.23, 1.23 μg m-3 for control, frond, and black nylon mulching compared to their pre-planting values 1.23 μg m-3. Whereas, there were significant differences in the mid-season in the bulk density values of the control treatment, as they reached 1.24 μg m-3. While the mulching of fronds and black nylon did not significantly affect the values of bulk density in the middle of the season compared with the values before planting. While it is evident that there was a significant effect mulching on the values of the bulk density of the control, frond, and black nylon mulching at the end of the season, which amounted to 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26 μg m-3, respectively, compared to their values before planting. Also, it is noticed that the values of the bulk density rates of straw mulching treatment decreased at the beginning, middle and end of the season, as the values were 1.21, 1.22, and 1.22 μg m-3, respectively, compared with their value before planting.
There was no significant effect of the two irrigation methods on the bulk density values at the beginning, middle and end of the season compared with the bulk density values before planting.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on water conductivity, as the values of the water conductivity decreased compared to their values before planting, and became 2.68 x 10-3, 2.69 x 10-3, and 2.73 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for control, fronds, and nylon, respectively. While the treatment of straw mulching, the water conductivity values increased at the end of the season compared to their values before planting.
The presence of the effect of the irrigation method on water conductivity, and led to a decrease in the values of the water conductivity compared to its values before planting, as it reached 2.76 x10-3 - 2.75 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for the two irrigation treatments in basin and furrow, respectively.
A slight decrease in the temperature in the middle of the season during the months of September and October, and the decline continued until the end of the season in the month of November. The highest temperatures were recorded for the treatment mulched with black nylon and control, followed by the palm fronds and the lowest temperature for the straw mulch treatment. The irrigation method did not affect soil temperature during the crop growth stages.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on plant height, the mean values of plant height were 184.05, 169.25, 149.6, 177.5 cm for control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the absence of a significant effect of the irrigation method on plant height, the averages of the two methods of irrigation of basins and furrows were 169.95 and 170.25 cm, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the leaf area (4205, 5381, 4385, 3564 cm2 for straw, frond, control, and nylon mulching respectively. as well as, the absence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the leaf area.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the grain yield, reaching 5260, 4028, 3520, and 4625 kg ha-1 for control, straw, fronds, and nylon mulching, respectively. As well as significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the grain yield, reaching 4014,4703 kg ha-1 for the treatment of irrigation of basins and furrows, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for weight of 500 grains (91.1, 103.8, 113.9, 99.8 gm for the control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the presence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the weight of 500 grains, which amounted to 105.4 98.8 gm for irrigation with basins and furrows respectively.
Mulching soil surface with straw and fronds increased water use efficiency compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.104, 0.849, and 0.708 kg m-3, respectively. There were also no significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the water use efficiency.

 

Study The Thermal Properties of The Soil Under Systems Irrigation and Mulching Different

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167503

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, with the aim of studying thermal properties under different irrigation and mulching systems. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The thermal properties were estimated using equations (thermal conductivity, heat flow, volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusion), the results showed the following:

It is noticed that superiority of the treatment of mulching with black nylon at the beginning and end of the season by obtaining the highest thermal conductivity of the soil, followed by the treatment of straw and fronds compared to the treatment without mulching, as it reached at the beginning of the season 0.830, 0.769, and 0.752 W∙m−1∙K respectively, and reached at the end of the season 0.772, 0.813, and 0.834 W∙m−1∙K respectively, while the thermal conductivity of the control was 0.665, 0.746 W∙m−1∙K at the beginning and end of the season respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in the thermal conductivity values at the beginning and the end of the season, reaching 0.733 and 0.775 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the beginning of the season and 0.785 and 0.797 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the end of the season.
The black nylon mulch treatment outperformed the rest of the treatments at the beginning of the season, followed by the non-mulched treatment, then the frond mulching and straw mulching treatment by obtaining the highest heat flux rate of 2.96, 3.30, 4.47 and 6.80 W/m2, respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method by obtaining the highest heat flux at the beginning of the season, reaching 5.99, and 2.77 W/m2, respectively, but the opposite happened at the end of the season where the furrow irrigation method outperformed the basin irrigation method, reaching 3.99, and 3.85 W/ m2 respectively.
The mulching treatment with black nylon exceeded by obtaining the highest values of volumetric heat capacity, then followed by the treatment of mulching with straw and fronds, and then treatment without mulching at the beginning and end of the growing season, reaching 1.61, 1.53, 1.49, and 1.39 MJ / m3 respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.52, 1.54, 1.54 and 1.63 respectively at the end of the season.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in that it obtained the highest values of volumetric heat capacity which were 1.48 and 1.53 MJ / m3.K respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.57 and 1.54 MJ / m3.K respectively at the end of the season.
The treatment of mulching with black nylon outperformed by obtaining the highest value of thermal diffusivity, followed by the treatment of mulching with fronds and straw, compared to a treatment without mulching at the beginning of the season, which amounted to 5.18x10-7, 5.06x10-7, 5.01x10-7, and 4.79x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.
The basin irrigation method achieved the highest rate of thermal diffusivity compared with the furrow irrigation method at the beginning of the growing season, reaching 5.09 x10-7, and 4.94x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.

The Status of Temporal Changes in Land Suitability for Wheat Production in Musayeb Project Irrigated from Central Iraq Using GIS

Ahmad S. Muhaimeed; Nada Farook; K. A . AL KASSEY

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 154-166
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2017.162625

Musayeb project in Babylon province has been selected in middle of Iraq to represent the irrigated area in order to study land suitability for wheat production and their temporal changes during 1994 - 2013.Soils of Musayeb project consist of undeveloped belong ,mainly to Entisols order with about 97% from the total area of the project , while the Arid soils occupied about 3 % from the total area .Data about the soils of the project has been collected from previous pedagogical soil survey works done in 1994 and resampling for soil has been done in 2013 in order to show the temporal changes in land suitability values .Land suitability evaluation values are determined according to Sys et.al.1993 and FAO,1985 to soil depth of 100 cm .The results indicate that soil units have high suitability up to 85 % from the total area of the project and within S1 class in 1994. While , 13% of the total area is unsuitable for wheat production which represent N1and N2 classes due to the effect of salt accumulation. Also , the results show that all soil units have low organic carbon content which affect land suitability values. Land suitability values are temporally improved from 1994 to 2013 due to the effect of land management practices leading to decrease salinity level and increase land suitability for wheat production .

The Aerobic and Anaerobic Decomposition for Different Sources of Organic Material Content

A.A. Al-Gumaily; S. S. Al-Azawi

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2016.115298

A incubation experiment is carried out in a wood tent under aerobic and anaerobic with CRD design at 3 replicates in 24 experimental units. The experiment treatments include ( Cow residue , date palm residues without adjusted C/N , date palm residues with adjusted C/N to 1/19 and soil is used as control treatment , The organic components are characterize and measured of the content organic weekly during incubation period for 4 months. The results showed that The aerobic decomposition is faster than anaerobic decomposition , The organic residues of organic matter are reduced under anaerobic condition from 54.59 gm.Kg-1 after 7 days to reach a value of 48.68 gm.Kg-1 after 54 day of incubation period, while under aerobic conditions it is 52.33 gm.Kg-1 to reach a value of 43.81 gm.Kg-1 after 54 day of incubation period and show there are differences significant at 21 , 28 , 35 , 42 , 48 and 54 days respectively, Also The adjusted and non-adjusted date palm residues showed a significant difference superiority in the organic content. matter in all periods

Evaluation of Suitability of Al – Jazira Project Lands for Wheat Cultivation

Ahmed Muhaimeed; Nada Farook Aboud; Kasam A .Al kassey

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 29-36
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2016.110160

Al –Jazira project located in Nainawa governorate is selected to represent the supplemental irrigated cultivation system in north Iraq in order to study Land suitability for wheat cultivation. The dominant soils of the project include Inceptions with %34 and Mollisols with % 42.83 and Soil associations %22.78 of the total area. Some historical soil data have been collected from previous work done in 1980 and climatic data are collected for the last thirty years. Soils and climate (temperature, rainfall) characteristics are evaluated for wheat growing by using FAO, (1976) and SYS et al system (1993) which has been developed by the Italian institute in Florence (2012). Soil properties are weighed to depth 100 cm. The results indicate that most of the project areas show high degree of suitability for wheat growing with the suitability classes including S1 with %97.31 , S2 with % 2.3 from the total area of the project. Organic carbon is moderately limited factor for wheat. The suitability is 60 results which indicates that climate suitability for wheat (temperature, rainfall) is high suitable (S1) temperature and moderately suitable S2 for ( rain fall )

A Study of Morphology & Biotic Properties of the Soil of College of Agriculture–Al Noria

Jawad Abdul kadhem kamal

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2015, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2015.108683

Three (pedon) of soil Qadisiyah University College of Agriculture, have been dag at Nouria area, to study the morphological and biological characteristics of college and using Linear statistics, has been found that soil is affected in color variation in soil and wet cases account and the horizon Ap toward the horizon c3 therefore it is found that the result of the approved Ap showed variation summit 0.51 as compared with other horizons . There is no variation upper horizons Ap, c1 while is there heterogeneity in sight c2 and c3 as much as 10 times found that the total bacteria of college, fungi and bacteria Azospirllum have caused marked variation horizon AP, c1, as is ) 14.34 1.52, 10.49),(21.38,17.68,32.40) compared with prospects c2 and c3 while the disappearance of presence of fungi in sight (Nill)c3.

The Allelopathic Effect of Sunflower Residue on the Emergence and Growth of Some Weeds and Field Crops and Soil Chemical Characteristics

Nabeel R. L; Abdl-Kareem H. A; Ahmed F.G

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 82-96
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2014.97285

To investigate the allelopathic effect of sunflower residue on emergence and growth of some weeds, field crops and soil chemical characteristic,two experiments have been conducted during 2013 and 2014 at College of agriculture / University of Wasit . The first experiment is conducted in pots using CRD design to test the allelopathic effect of two rates of sunflower residue (3 and 6g per kg soil) on emergence and growth of wheat , barley , broad bean and six species of broad and narrow leaves weeds . The second experiment is applied in a field using RCBD design to study of sunflower residue effectiveness (rate 6 g per kg soil) on growth of broad bean and companion weeds , and some soil characteristics compared with Trifluralin herbicide( 600ml per dunam). Pots experiment result show a high significant effect of sunflower residue on weed suppressive, specially, narrow leaves species is compared with broad leaves weeds. Sunflower residue have significant effect on wheat and barley crops , while it has no significant effect on broad bean. Field experiment result show the same trend of sunflower residue effect on weed biomass and without significant effect with trifluralin herbicide treatments. However, it was an increased in dry weight of broad bean is compared with control and herbicide treatment. Positive effects of sunflower residue has appeared on availability of some minerals nutrient in soil such as nitrogen , potassium , calcium , magnesium , sulfur , and organic matter , while , lowering PH. electrical conductivity (EC), sodium and chlorine are slightly increased a result of sunflower residue, but not arrived critical level that has effect on the crop. In conclusion, sunflower residue could be used as a feasible and environmentally sound weed management and enhancement of soil characteristics and broad bean growth.