Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Keywords : groundwater


The Continental Intercalary in Algeria: Analysis, Survey and Perspectives for Green Agriculture Development

Salim Etsouri; Hakim Bachir; Mohamed Bouaziz; Ferhat Kaci; Rabia Malkia; Kaddour Etsouri

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2022.132568.1022

The Northern Sahara Aquifer System (NSAS) is a complex system that includes several aquifers overlying most areas. The Continental Intercalary, also known as the "Albian groundwater" is an aquifer with impressive characteristics. It extends over three countries: Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. Intended for crop irrigation, the boreholes drilled in this Algerian aquifer, the boreholes carried out on this aquifer are artesian in their totality, with flows and pressures reaching in some places considerable values, of the order of 0,4 m3.s-1 for the flow and 3.106 Pa for the pressure. These two parameters are necessary to appreciate the energy potential of the Albian groundwater. A survey of the Continental Intercalary was carried out to study its energy potential. We were able to gather all possible data concerning the boreholes in the Algerian aquifer part. The study covered 295 boreholes that were identified and well documented, spread over 3 regions in southern Algeria. The water from the artesian boreholes in the Albian groundwater is transported to storage basins (for drinking water supply, irrigation and industry) for later use, or distributed directly to users after lowering the temperature of the water in the cooling towers. In these operations, all the hydraulic energy is lost and external energy is required from the electricity grid to meet the needs. The cumulative energy potential of all the boreholes identified has reached the theoretical value of 168GWh/year, the equivalent of 14520 toe (ton of oil equivalent) that are lost annually. Best management of this natural resource will not only enable resilient and sustainable management of the production systems and the environment, but also the energy needed to cool the water, as well as the energy needed for the maintenance of the boreholes and the facilities in the direct neighbourhood.

Comparison Between Groundwater Quality at North East and South West of Erbil Governorate for Irrigation Using Some Global Systems and Principal Component Analysis

Dania Mohammed Danish Aladdin Sajadi; Akram Othman Esmail

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 308-324
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167475

This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.
This investigation was conducted during June ,2019 to November ,2019  for  classification of water of  (54) wells in Erbil province 26 of them in north and north east of Erbil and  the other half at south west of Erbil. The studied waters were classified for irrigation purpose depending on some global systems or classification and Principal component analysis was done for the calculated parameters used in classification.. Depending on USDA classification(1954)  the water  of the water of (20 and 6) locations or wells having C2S1 and C3S1 Class respectively .While for the south east Erbil wells the water classes were C1S1, C2S1 , C3S1 and C4S1 for (1,5,17, and 3) wells it means the water quality in  south west of Erbil west  is bad in comparing with the water for wells in north and north east of Erbil. Depending  Ayres and Westcot  (1985)  and Doneen classification the water wells in north and north east of Erbil had better water classes in comparing with  the groundwater in south west of Erbil.,. A scree plot for eigenvalues recorded in this investigation showed the pronounced change of slope after the third eigenvalue. Eigenvalue close or greater than one (unity) were  three factors for north and north east of Erbil and two factors for water of south west of Erbil due to its higher EC value.