Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Author : H. Alshakhli, Prof.A.


The Effect of Treated Waste Water by Binary Irrigation on Growth and Yield of Maize

Hamda A. Irhayyim; Prof.A. H. Alshakhli; Francis U. Jannu

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2016.115294

A field experiment is conducted to determine water requirements for mays crop for the fall season of 2013 in the field of Zafaraniyah Station – Ministry of Agriculture, 30 km south of Baghdad, 44.4˚ longitude, 33.14 latitude and 34 m elevation. The experiment is designed according to RCBD with three replicates and treatments are distributed randomly on experimental plots. The field is divided into experimental units. The experiment consisted five irrigation treatments: T1 (100 wastewater), T2 (75% wastewater +25% river water), T3 (50% waste water + 50% river water), T4 (25% wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 (100% river water).
There is a significant increment in plant growth and yield, where plant height, leaf area, weight of 1000 grains, grains yield and grains yield per individual plant increased with increasing mixture ratio, the higher height is in T1 (100% wastewater) of 1.86 m and the lower height is 1.74 m in T5 (100% river water) with increment ratio of 2.29, 4.02, 6.32 and 6.89% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Higher leaf area was 0.58 m2 at T1 and the lower is 0.51 m2 at T5 with increment ratio of 3.77, 5.14, 12.58 and 13.30 for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively. Grain weight increase with increasing mixture ratio, the higher weight is 265.3 g at T1 and the lower is 235.3 g at T5 with increment ratio of 3.82, 6.12, 10.07 and 12.75% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The higher yield is 9.64 tons.h-1 at T1 and the lower is 7.63 tons.h-1 at T5 with increment ratio of 3.80, 9.44, 12.71 and 26.74% for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively. Grain yield per individual plant increase with the increasing mixture ratio, where the higher yield was 145.19 g at T1 and the lower was 114.56 g at T5 with increment ratio of 3.81, 9.44, 12.72 and 26.74% for T4, T3, T2 and T1, respectively.
Results of the effect of treated wastewater on plant height and leaf area agree with those obtained for green canopy cover percent (CC) through applying AquaCrop program, where the higher CC was 81% at T1 and the lower CC is 77% at T4 (25% treated wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 at planting period.

Effect of Treated Wastewater by Binary Irrigation on Soil Physical Properties

Hamda A. Irhayyim; Prof.A. H. Alshakhli; Francis U. Jannu

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 201-213
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2016.115315

A field experiment was conducted to determine water requirements for mays crop for fall season of 2013 in the field of Zafaraniyah Station – Ministry of Agriculture, 30 km south of Baghdad, 44.4˚ longitude, 33.14 latitude and 34 m elevation.
The experiment was designed according to RCBD with three replicates and treatments were distributed randomly on experimental plots. The field was divided into experimental units and the statistical program Genstat (2012) was used for statistical data analysis under probability level of 0.05 to compare treatments means. The experiment consisted five irrigation treatments: T1 (100 wastewater), T2 (75% wastewater +25% river water), T3 (50% waste water + 50% river water), T4 (25% wastewater + 75% river water) and T5 (100% river water). Irrigation with treated wastewater and binary irrigation had significant effects on soil bulk density at probability level 0.05 for three depths, soil bulk density decreased with increasing of irrigation with treated wastewater rate, and it decreased with increasing of river water irrigation rate and higher increment was in T5 (100% river water only). Irrigation with treated wastewater and dual irrigation had non-significant effects on soil bulk density below probability level 0.05 for three depths, whereas soil bulk density decreased with increase of irrigation rate with treated wastewater, and it decrease with increase of river water irrigation rate and most increase in fifth treatment (100% river water only). Total porosity increased with increasing of mixing rate with treated wastewater and binary irrigation in 1.90, 2.70, 6.44 and 9.07% for 0-15 cm soil depth, and 1.86, 2.73, 5.88 and 6.12 for 15-30 cm soil depth, and0.79, 1.10, 4.22, and 3.44% for 30-60 cm soil depth for 25, 50, 75, and 100% mixing rate for irrigation with treated wastewater. Rate of soil aggregation more than 20 µ for soil sample that taken from 30-15 cm soil depth for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were 33.76, 28.24, 26.40, 27.44, and 24.16% respectively. Increased mixing rate with treated wastewater and river water and binary irrigation increased mean weighted diameter (MWD) for two depths 0-15 and 15-30 cm, were 3.23, 2.01, and 1.74 and 1.40 times for treatment T2 and T3 and T4 and T5 respectively, while increase for second depth (15-30 cm) were 1.62 and 1.33 and 1.25 and 1.07 times respectively, compared with T1 treatment. Infiltration rate decreased with increasing mixing rate with treated wastewater were 10.03, 22.58, 29.26 and 43.48% for treatments T3 and T4 and T2 and T1 compared with T5 treatment, respectively.