Print ISSN: 2077-5822

Online ISSN: 2618-1479

Author : Jameel Kareem Al-Lame, Athmar


Study The Effect of Soil Mulching and Irrigation Systems on Some Physical Properties of The Soil and Growth and Yield of Maize

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 426-441
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167504

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, the soil texture was Sandy loam, to study the effect of types of mulching and irrigation systems on some physical properties of soil, growth and yield of maize. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The physical properties of the study treatments were measured before planting, mid-season and at the end of the season, which included bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil temperature. The growth characters of the maize were measured at 100% flowering, which include plant height, leaf area, weight of 500 grains, total yield, and water use efficiency. The most important results obtained can be summarized as follows:

The bulk density values at the beginning of the season were not significantly affected by soil mulching, as the values of bulk density rates were 1.23, 1.23, 1.23 μg m-3 for control, frond, and black nylon mulching compared to their pre-planting values 1.23 μg m-3. Whereas, there were significant differences in the mid-season in the bulk density values of the control treatment, as they reached 1.24 μg m-3. While the mulching of fronds and black nylon did not significantly affect the values of bulk density in the middle of the season compared with the values before planting. While it is evident that there was a significant effect mulching on the values of the bulk density of the control, frond, and black nylon mulching at the end of the season, which amounted to 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26 μg m-3, respectively, compared to their values before planting. Also, it is noticed that the values of the bulk density rates of straw mulching treatment decreased at the beginning, middle and end of the season, as the values were 1.21, 1.22, and 1.22 μg m-3, respectively, compared with their value before planting.
There was no significant effect of the two irrigation methods on the bulk density values at the beginning, middle and end of the season compared with the bulk density values before planting.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on water conductivity, as the values of the water conductivity decreased compared to their values before planting, and became 2.68 x 10-3, 2.69 x 10-3, and 2.73 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for control, fronds, and nylon, respectively. While the treatment of straw mulching, the water conductivity values increased at the end of the season compared to their values before planting.
The presence of the effect of the irrigation method on water conductivity, and led to a decrease in the values of the water conductivity compared to its values before planting, as it reached 2.76 x10-3 - 2.75 x 10-3 cm sec-1 for the two irrigation treatments in basin and furrow, respectively.
A slight decrease in the temperature in the middle of the season during the months of September and October, and the decline continued until the end of the season in the month of November. The highest temperatures were recorded for the treatment mulched with black nylon and control, followed by the palm fronds and the lowest temperature for the straw mulch treatment. The irrigation method did not affect soil temperature during the crop growth stages.
The presence of a significant effect of mulching on plant height, the mean values of plant height were 184.05, 169.25, 149.6, 177.5 cm for control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the absence of a significant effect of the irrigation method on plant height, the averages of the two methods of irrigation of basins and furrows were 169.95 and 170.25 cm, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the leaf area (4205, 5381, 4385, 3564 cm2 for straw, frond, control, and nylon mulching respectively. as well as, the absence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the leaf area.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for the grain yield, reaching 5260, 4028, 3520, and 4625 kg ha-1 for control, straw, fronds, and nylon mulching, respectively. As well as significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the grain yield, reaching 4014,4703 kg ha-1 for the treatment of irrigation of basins and furrows, respectively.
The presence of significant differences between mulching treatments for weight of 500 grains (91.1, 103.8, 113.9, 99.8 gm for the control, straw, fronds, and black nylon respectively, as well as the presence of significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the weight of 500 grains, which amounted to 105.4 98.8 gm for irrigation with basins and furrows respectively.
Mulching soil surface with straw and fronds increased water use efficiency compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.104, 0.849, and 0.708 kg m-3, respectively. There were also no significant differences between the two irrigation methods on the water use efficiency.

 

Study The Thermal Properties of The Soil Under Systems Irrigation and Mulching Different

Athmar Jameel Kareem Al-Lame; Jamal N. A. Al-Saadoon

Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences, 2020, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 415-425
DOI: 10.33794/qjas.2020.167503

A field experiment was carried out in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Wasit located at a longitude 45° 50' 33.5"east and N 29° 36' 49.8" norths for the 2019 growing season, with the aim of studying thermal properties under different irrigation and mulching systems. The study was carried as factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications, the first factor was mulching (control, wheat straw, palm fronds, and black nylon), and the second factor was irrigation methods (basin, and furrow). Maize crop was planted on 20/7/2019, and harvesting was completed on November 20, 2019. The thermal properties were estimated using equations (thermal conductivity, heat flow, volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusion), the results showed the following:

It is noticed that superiority of the treatment of mulching with black nylon at the beginning and end of the season by obtaining the highest thermal conductivity of the soil, followed by the treatment of straw and fronds compared to the treatment without mulching, as it reached at the beginning of the season 0.830, 0.769, and 0.752 W∙m−1∙K respectively, and reached at the end of the season 0.772, 0.813, and 0.834 W∙m−1∙K respectively, while the thermal conductivity of the control was 0.665, 0.746 W∙m−1∙K at the beginning and end of the season respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in the thermal conductivity values at the beginning and the end of the season, reaching 0.733 and 0.775 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the beginning of the season and 0.785 and 0.797 W∙m−1∙K respectively at the end of the season.
The black nylon mulch treatment outperformed the rest of the treatments at the beginning of the season, followed by the non-mulched treatment, then the frond mulching and straw mulching treatment by obtaining the highest heat flux rate of 2.96, 3.30, 4.47 and 6.80 W/m2, respectively.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method by obtaining the highest heat flux at the beginning of the season, reaching 5.99, and 2.77 W/m2, respectively, but the opposite happened at the end of the season where the furrow irrigation method outperformed the basin irrigation method, reaching 3.99, and 3.85 W/ m2 respectively.
The mulching treatment with black nylon exceeded by obtaining the highest values of volumetric heat capacity, then followed by the treatment of mulching with straw and fronds, and then treatment without mulching at the beginning and end of the growing season, reaching 1.61, 1.53, 1.49, and 1.39 MJ / m3 respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.52, 1.54, 1.54 and 1.63 respectively at the end of the season.
The basin irrigation method outperformed the furrow irrigation method in that it obtained the highest values of volumetric heat capacity which were 1.48 and 1.53 MJ / m3.K respectively at the beginning of the season and 1.57 and 1.54 MJ / m3.K respectively at the end of the season.
The treatment of mulching with black nylon outperformed by obtaining the highest value of thermal diffusivity, followed by the treatment of mulching with fronds and straw, compared to a treatment without mulching at the beginning of the season, which amounted to 5.18x10-7, 5.06x10-7, 5.01x10-7, and 4.79x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.
The basin irrigation method achieved the highest rate of thermal diffusivity compared with the furrow irrigation method at the beginning of the growing season, reaching 5.09 x10-7, and 4.94x10-7 m2 / sec respectively.